SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
Business — Cinemark Holdings, Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) operates in the motion picture exhibition industry, with theatres in the United States (“U.S.”), Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Guatemala, Bolivia, Curaçao and Paraguay.
Principles of Consolidation — The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Cinemark Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries. Majority-owned subsidiaries that the Company has control of are consolidated while those affiliates of which the Company owns between 20% and 50% and does not control are accounted for under the equity method. Those affiliates of which the Company owns less than 20% are generally accounted for under the cost method, unless the Company is deemed to have the ability to exercise significant influence over the affiliate, in which case the Company would account for its investment under the equity method. The results of these equity method investees are included in the consolidated financial statements effective with their formation or from their dates of acquisition. Intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
Cash and Cash Equivalents — Cash and cash equivalents consist of operating funds held in financial institutions, petty cash held by the theatres and highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less when purchased. Cash investments are primarily in money market funds, certificates of deposit, commercial paper or other similar funds.
Accounts Receivable – Accounts receivable, which are recorded at net realizable value, consist primarily of receivables related to screen advertising, screen rental, receivables related to discounted tickets and gift cards sold to third party retail locations, receivables from landlords related to theatre construction and remodels, rebates earned from the Company’s concession vendors and value-added and other non-income tax receivables.
Inventories — Concession and theatre supplies inventories are stated at the lower of cost (first-in, first-out method) or market.
Theatre Properties and Equipment — Theatre properties and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Depreciation is provided using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
The Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment indicators on a quarterly basis or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable. The Company also performs a full quantitative impairment evaluation on an annual basis. The Company considers actual theatre level cash flows, budgeted theatre level cash flows, theatre property and equipment carrying values, operating lease right-of-use asset carrying values, amortizing intangible asset carrying values, the age of a recently built theatre, competitive theatres in the marketplace, the impact of recent ticket price changes, the impact of recent theatre remodels or other substantial improvements, available lease renewal options and other factors considered relevant in its impairment assessment. Long-lived assets are evaluated for impairment on a theatre basis, which the Company
believes is the lowest applicable level for which there are identifiable cash flows. The impairment evaluation is based on the estimated undiscounted cash flows from continuing use through the remainder of the theatre’s useful life. The remainder of the theatre’s useful life correlates with the remaining lease period, which includes the probability of the exercise of available renewal periods or extensions, for leased properties and the lesser of twenty years or the building’s remaining useful life for owned properties. If the estimated undiscounted cash flows are not sufficient to recover a long-lived asset’s carrying value, the Company then compares the carrying value of the asset group (theatre) with its estimated fair value. When the estimated fair value is determined to be lower than the carrying value of the asset group, the asset group is written down to its estimated fair value. Significant judgment is involved in estimating cash flows and fair value. Management’s estimates, which fall under Level 3 of the U.S. GAAP fair value hierarchy as defined by Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 820-10-35, are based on historical and projected operating performance, recent market transactions and current industry trading multiples. Fair value is determined based on a multiple of cash flows, which was six and a half times for the evaluations performed during 2017, 2018 and 2019. The long-lived asset impairment charges recorded during each of the periods presented are specific to theatres that were directly and individually impacted by increased competition, adverse changes in market demographics, or adverse changes in the development or the conditions of the areas surrounding the theatre. See Note 10 for further discussion.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets — The Company evaluates goodwill for impairment annually during the fourth quarter or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of the goodwill may not be fully recoverable. The Company evaluates goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level and we have allocated goodwill to the reporting unit based on an estimate of its relative fair value. Management considers the reporting unit to be each of its twenty regions in the U.S. and seven of its international countries with Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Guatemala considered one reporting unit (the Company does not have goodwill recorded for all of its international locations). Under ASC Topic 350, Goodwill, Intangibles and Other (“ASC Topic 350”), the Company may perform a qualitative impairment assessment or a quantitative impairment assessment of our goodwill.
A quantitative analysis requires the Company to estimate the fair value of each reporting unit and compare it with its carrying value. If the carrying value of the reporting unit exceeds its estimated fair value, goodwill would be written down such that the carrying value would equal estimated fair value. Fair value is determined based on a multiple of cash flows, which was eight times for the evaluations performed during 2017, 2018 and 2019. Significant judgment is involved in estimating cash flows and fair value. Management’s estimates, which fall under Level 3 of the U.S. GAAP fair value hierarchy as defined by FASB ASC Topic 820-10-35, are based on historical and projected operating performance, recent market transactions and current industry trading multiples. Fair value is determined based on a multiple of cash flows, which was eight times for the evaluations performed during 2018 and 2019. A qualitative assessment includes consideration of historical and expected future industry performance, estimated future performance of the Company, current industry trading multiples and other economic factors, and a review of current carrying values to estimated fair values as determined during our most recent quantitative assessment.
The Company performed a quantitative goodwill impairment analysis for all reporting units during the year ended December 31, 2017. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company performed a quantitative goodwill assessment for three new domestic reporting units and a qualitative assessment for all other reporting units. For the year ended December 31, 2019 the Company performed a qualitative analysis for all reporting units. The Company did not record any goodwill impairment charges as a result of the assessments performed during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019.
Tradename intangible assets are tested for impairment at least annually during the fourth quarter or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be fully recoverable. Under ASC Topic 350, the Company can elect to perform a qualitative or quantitative impairment assessment for our tradename intangible assets. A quantitative tradename impairment assessment includes comparing the carrying values of tradename assets to an estimated fair value. Fair values are estimated by applying an estimated market royalty rate that could be charged for the use of our tradename to forecasted future revenues, with an adjustment for the present value of such royalties. If the estimated fair value is less than the carrying value, the tradename intangible asset is written down to its estimated fair value. Significant judgment is involved in estimating market royalty rates and long-term revenue forecasts. Management’s estimates, which fall under Level 3 of the U.S. GAAP fair value hierarchy as defined by FASB ASC Topic 820-10-35, are based on historical and projected revenue performance and industry trends. A
qualitative assessment considers our historical and forecasted revenues and changes in estimated royalty rates, and a comparison of current carrying values to estimated fair values from our most recent quantitative assessment.
During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company performed a quantitative tradename impairment assessment for its tradename in Ecuador and performed a qualitative tradename impairment analysis for all other tradename intangible assets. During the year ended December 31, 2018, the Company performed a quantitative tradename impairment evaluation for all of its tradename assets. During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company performed a qualitative tradename impairment analysis for all of its tradename assets. As a result of the analysis performed during each year, no impairment charges were recorded related to tradename intangible assets for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019.
The table below summarizes the Company’s intangible assets and the amortization method used for each type of intangible asset:
Lease Accounting — See Note 3 for discussion of the Company’s lease accounting policies as well as the impact of new lease accounting pronouncements.
Deferred Charges — Deferred charges and other assets consist of construction and other deposits, equipment to be placed in service, and other assets of a long-term nature.
Self-Insurance Reserves — In the U.S., the Company is self-insured for general liability claims subject to an annual cap. For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019, general liability claims were capped at $250, $250 and $500, respectively, per occurrence with aggregate annual caps of approximately $3,900, $4,750 and $6,000, respectively. For its international locations, the Company is fully insured for general liability claims with little or no deductibles per occurrence. During 2017, the Company implemented a fully-funded deductible workers compensation insurance plan under which the Company is responsible for pre-funding claims and is responsible for claims up to $250 per occurrence, with an annual cap of $5,000 for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019. The Company was also self-insured for domestic medical claims up to $250 per occurrence for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019. As of December 31, 2018 and 2019, the Company’s insurance reserves were $10,827 and $11,577, respectively, and are reflected in accrued other current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets.
Revenue and Expense Recognition — See Note 4 for discussion of revenue recognition and deferred revenues.
Film rental costs are subject to the film licensing arrangement and accrued based on the applicable box office receipts and either; 1) a sliding scale formula, which is generally established prior to the opening of the film, 2) firm terms or 3) estimates of the final settlement rate, which occurs at the conclusion of the film run. Under a sliding scale formula, we pay a percentage of box office revenues using a pre-determined matrix that is based upon box office performance of the film for its full run. Under a firm terms formula, we pay the distributor a percentage of box office receipts, which reflects either an aggregate rate for the life of the film or rates that decline over the term of the run. The settlement process allows for negotiation of film rental fees upon the conclusion of the film run
based upon how the film performs. Estimates are based on the expected success of a film. The success of a film can typically be determined a few weeks after a film is released when the initial box office performance of the film is known. If actual settlements are different than those estimates, film rental costs are adjusted at that time.
Accounting for Share Based Awards — The Company measures the cost of employee services received in exchange for an equity award based on the fair value of the award on the date of the grant. The grant date fair value is estimated using a market observed price. Such costs are recognized over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award (which is usually the vesting period). At the time of the grant, the Company also estimates the number of awards that will ultimately be forfeited. See Note 16 for discussion of the Company’s share based awards and related compensation expense.
Income Taxes — The Company uses an asset and liability approach to financial accounting and reporting for income taxes. Deferred income taxes are provided when tax laws and financial accounting standards differ with respect to the amount of income for a year and the basis of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce the carrying amount of deferred tax assets unless it is more likely than not that such assets will be realized. Income taxes are provided on unremitted earnings from foreign subsidiaries unless such earnings are expected to be indefinitely reinvested. Income taxes have also been provided for potential tax assessments. The evaluation of an uncertain tax position is a two-step process. The first step is recognition: The Company determines whether it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained upon examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. In evaluating whether a tax position has met the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, the Company should presume that the position would be examined by the appropriate taxing authority that would have full knowledge of all relevant information. The second step is measurement: A tax position that meets the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold is measured to determine the amount of benefit to recognize in the financial statements. The tax position is measured as the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Differences between tax positions taken in a tax return and amounts recognized in the financial statements result in (1) a change in a liability for income taxes payable or (2) a change in an income tax refund receivable, a deferred tax asset or a deferred tax liability or both (1) and (2). The Company accrues interest and penalties on its uncertain tax positions as a component of income tax expense.
Segments — For the years ended December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019, the Company managed its business under two reportable operating segments, U.S. markets and international markets. See Note 20.
Use of Estimates — The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods presented. The Company’s consolidated financial statements include amounts that are based on management’s best estimates and judgments. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Foreign Currency Translations — The assets and liabilities of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries are translated into U.S. dollars at current exchange rates as of the balance sheet date, and revenues and expenses are translated at average monthly exchange rates. The resulting translation adjustments are recorded in the consolidated balance sheets in accumulated other comprehensive loss. See Note 14 for a summary of the translation adjustments recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2018 and 2019. The Company recognizes foreign currency transaction gains and losses when changes in exchange rates impact transactions, other than intercompany transactions of a long-term investment nature, that have been denominated in a currency other than the functional currency.
Fair Value Measurements — According to authoritative guidance, inputs used in fair value measurements fall into three different categories; Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3. Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the reporting entity has the ability to access at the measurement date. Level 2 inputs are inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability. See Note 13 for a discussion of our fair value measurements for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2019.
Acquisitions — The Company accounts for acquisitions under the acquisition method of accounting. The acquisition method requires that the acquired assets and liabilities, including contingencies, be recorded at fair value determined on the acquisition date and changes thereafter reflected in income. For certain acquisitions, the Company obtains independent third party valuation studies for certain of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed to assist the Company in determining fair value. The estimation of the fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed involves a number of estimates and assumptions that could differ materially from the actual amounts realized. The Company provides assumptions, including both quantitative and qualitative information, about the specified asset or liability to the third party valuation firms. The Company primarily utilizes the third parties to accumulate comparative data from multiple sources and assemble a report that summarizes the information obtained. The Company then uses the information to record estimated fair value. The third party valuation firms are supervised by Company personnel who are knowledgeable about valuations and fair value. The Company evaluates the appropriateness of the assumptions and valuation methodologies utilized by the third party valuation firm.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef