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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)

OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2023

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)

OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ______ to ______

Commission

File Number

Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter,

Principal Executive Office Address and Telephone Number

State of

Incorporation

I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.

001-33401

Cinemark Holdings, Inc.

3900 Dallas Parkway

Plano, Texas 75093

(972) 665-1000

 

Delaware

20-5490327

33-47040

Cinemark USA, Inc.

3900 Dallas Parkway

Plano, Texas 75093

(972) 665-1000

Texas

75-2206284

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

Title of each class

 

Trading Symbol(s)

Name of each exchange on which registered

Cinemark Holdings, Inc.

("Holdings")

Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share

CNK

New York Stock Exchange

Cinemark USA, Inc.

("CUSA")

None

 

None

None

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

Cinemark Holdings, Inc. None

Cinemark USA, Inc. None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Cinemark Holdings, Inc. Yes ☒ No

Cinemark USA, Inc. Yes ☐ No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

Cinemark Holdings, Inc. Yes No

Cinemark USA, Inc. Yes ☒ No ☐

(Note: As a voluntary filer, Cinemark USA, Inc. is not subject to the filing requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Cinemark Holdings, Inc. Yes No

Cinemark USA, Inc. Yes ☐ No

(Note: As a voluntary filer, Cinemark USA, Inc. is not subject to the filing requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act. Cinemark USA, Inc. has filed all reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act during the preceding 12 months as if it was subject to such filing requirements.)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Cinemark Holdings, Inc. Yes No

Cinemark USA, Inc. Yes ☒ No ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Cinemark Holdings, Inc.

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

                                Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

Emerging growth company

 

 

 


 

Cinemark USA, Inc.

 

 

 

 

                              Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Cinemark Holdings, Inc. ☐

Cinemark USA, Inc. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Cinemark Holdings, Inc.

Cinemark USA, Inc.

 

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Cinemark Holdings, Inc.

Cinemark USA, Inc.

 

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Cinemark Holdings, Inc. ☐

Cinemark USA, Inc. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).

Cinemark Holdings, Inc. Yes No

Cinemark USA, Inc. Yes No ☒

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity owned by non-affiliates of Holdings on June 30, 2023, computed by reference to the closing price for Holdings’ common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on such date was approximately $1.7 billion (104,257,922 shares held by non-affiliates at a closing price per share of $16.50). CUSA is wholly-owned by Holdings and there is no public trading market for its equity securities, therefore CUSA is unable to calculate the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity owned by non-affiliates.

As of February 9, 2024, 121,589,633 shares of common stock of Cinemark Holdings, Inc. were issued and outstanding.

As of February 9, 2024, 1,500 shares of Class A common stock, $0.01 par value per share, and 182,648 shares of Class B common stock, no par value per share, of Cinemark USA, Inc. were outstanding and held by Cinemark Holdings, Inc.

This combined Form 10-K is separately filed by Holdings and CUSA. Information contained herein relating to any individual registrant is filed by such registrant on its own behalf. Each registrant makes no representation as to information relating to the other registrant. When this Form 10-K is incorporated by reference into any filings with the SEC made by Holdings or CUSA, as a registrant, the portions of the Form 10-K that relate to the other registrant are not incorporated by reference therein.

OMISSION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION

CUSA meets the conditions set forth in General Instruction I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and has therefore omitted the information otherwise called for by items 10-13 of Form 10-K as allowed under General Instruction I(2)(c).

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Certain portions of Holdings’ definitive proxy statement, in connection with its 2024 annual meeting of stockholders, to be filed within 120 days of December 31, 2023, are incorporated by reference into Part III, Items 10-14, of this annual report on Form 10-K.

 

 

 


 

Table of Contents

 

 

Page

 

 

 

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

2

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

10

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

19

Item 1C.

 

Cybersecurity

 

19

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

20

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

21

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

21

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

22

Item 6.

 

[Reserved]

 

23

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results

of Operations

 

24

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

43

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

44

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and

Financial Disclosure

 

44

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

44

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

45

Item 9C.

 

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

 

45

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

47

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

47

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

47

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

47

Item 14.

 

Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

47

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibit and Financial Statement Schedules

 

47

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SIGNATURES

 

58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This combined annual report on Form 10-K includes “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws, including the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Holdings is a holding company which conducts all of its operations through CUSA and its subsidiaries. The “forward-looking statements” include our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections about the respective business and industry of Holdings and CUSA. They include statements relating to:

future revenue, expenses and profitability;
currency exchange rate and inflationary impacts;
the future development and expected growth of our business;
projected capital expenditures;
access to capital resources;
attendance at movies generally or in any of the markets in which we operate;
the number and diversity of popular movies released, the length of exclusive theatrical release windows and our ability to successfully license and exhibit popular films;
national and international growth in our industry;
competition from other exhibitors, alternative forms of entertainment and content delivery via streaming and other formats;
determinations in lawsuits in which we are a party; and
the ongoing recovery of our business and the motion picture exhibition industry from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the writers’ and actors’ guilds strikes.

You can identify forward-looking statements by the use of words such as “may,” “should,” “could,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “potential,” “continue,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “plans,” “expects,” “future” and “intends” and similar expressions. These statements are neither historical facts nor guarantees of future performance. Instead, they are based only on our current beliefs, expectations and assumptions regarding the future of our business, future plans and strategies, projections, anticipated events and trends, the economy and other future conditions and are, therefore, subject to risks, inherent uncertainties and other factors, some of which are beyond our control and difficult to predict. Such risks and uncertainties could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or forecasted in the forward-looking statements. Therefore, you should not rely on any of these forward-looking statements. In evaluating forward-looking statements, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described in the “Risk Factors” section in Item 1A and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. All forward-looking statements attributable to either Holdings or CUSA or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the cautionary statements and risk factors contained in this Form 10-K. Forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K reflect the views of Holdings and CUSA only as of the date of this Form 10-K. Neither Holdings nor CUSA undertake any obligation, other than as required by law, to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

Cinemark Holdings, Inc. is a Delaware corporation incorporated on August 2, 2006. Cinemark USA, Inc. is a Texas corporation incorporated in 1984 and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Cinemark Holdings, Inc. Our principal executive offices are at 3900 Dallas Parkway, Plano, Texas 75093. Our telephone number is (972) 665-1000. General information about us can be found at www.cinemark.com. All annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available on Holdings’ investor relations website at ir.cinemark.com free of charge under the heading "SEC Filings" as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC. Additionally, all filings with the SEC can be accessed on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company” or “Cinemark” relate to Cinemark Holdings, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. All references to CUSA relate to Cinemark USA, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.

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PART I

Unless the context otherwise requires, all references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company” or “Cinemark” relate to Cinemark Holdings, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. All references to CUSA relate to Cinemark USA, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries. Where it is important to distinguish between the entities, the report either refers specifically to Holdings or CUSA. All references to Latin America are to Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Guatemala, Bolivia, Paraguay, Curacao and Ecuador. We closed our one theatre in Curacao in January 2023 and sold our Ecuador subsidiary in September 2023. Unless otherwise specified, all operating and other statistical data is as of or for the year ended December 31, 2023.

Item 1. Business

We are a leader and one of the most geographically diverse operators in the motion picture exhibition industry. As of December 31, 2023, we operated 501 theatres and 5,719 screens in the United States, or “U.S.”, and Latin America. Our U.S. circuit operated 309 theatres and 4,324 screens and our Latin America circuit operated 192 theatres and 1,395 screens across 13 countries. Our significant and diverse presence in the U.S. and Latin America has made us an important distribution channel for movie studios and other content providers. We believe our portfolio of high-quality theatres with multiple platforms provides a preferred destination for moviegoers and has contributed to our consistent industry-leading results.

As of December 31, 2023, we managed our business under two reportable operating segments: U.S. markets and international markets. See Note 22 to the consolidated financial statements.

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic had an unprecedented effect on the theatrical exhibition industry. We temporarily closed our theatres in the U.S. and Latin America during March of 2020 at the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak. We reopened theatres as soon as local restrictions and the status of the COVID-19 pandemic would allow. All of our domestic and international theatres were reopened by the end of 2021. After reopening our theatres, we faced ongoing challenges with the significant reduction in the volume of new film releases. The industry has made significant progress in its recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic; however its ongoing recovery continues to be contingent upon several key factors, including the volume of new film content available, which has also been impacted by the recent writers’ and actors’ guild strikes, the box office performance of new film content released, the duration of the exclusive theatrical release window and evolving consumer behavior with competition from other forms of in-and-out of home entertainment.

Motion Picture Exhibition Industry Overview

Domestic

Preliminary estimates indicate that North American box office revenues were approximately $9.1 billion for 2023, up more than 21% compared with 2022 due primarily to an increase in the volume of new films released.

The following table represents the results of surveys by Motion Picture Association, or MPA, published in March 2022, and The Cinema Foundation, published in March 2023, outlining the historical trends in North American box office performance for the five-year period from 2018 through 2022. Box office performance has historically been primarily dependent on the quality, quantity and timing of film product.

 

 

 

North America

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Box Office Revenue

 

 

Attendance

 

 

Average Ticket

 

Year

 

($ in billions)

 

 

(in billions)

 

 

Price

 

2018

 

$

11.9

 

 

 

1.30

 

 

$

9.11

 

2019

 

$

11.4

 

 

 

1.24

 

 

$

9.16

 

2020

 

$

2.2

 

 

 

0.24

 

 

$

9.37

 

2021

 

$

4.5

 

 

 

0.47

 

 

$

9.57

 

2022

 

$

7.5

 

 

n/a (1)

 

 

$

10.53

 

(1)
2022 attendance figures for North America were not published.

Films released during the year ended December 31, 2023 included Barbie, The Super Mario Bros. Movie, Spider-Man: Across the Spider-Verse, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3, Oppenheimer, The Little Mermaid, Ant-Man

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and the Wasp: Quantumania, John Wick: Chapter 4, Sound of Freedom, Taylor Swift | The Eras Tour concert film, The Hunger Games: The Ballad of Songbirds and Snakes, Five Nights at Freddy’s, Wonka, and Trolls Band Together, among other films.

Films scheduled for release in 2024 include Madame Web, Dune: Part Two, Ghostbusters: Frozen Empire, Kung Fu Panda 4, The Fall Guy, Furiosa, Kingdom of the Planet of the Apes, Inside Out 2, A Quiet Place: Day One, Despicable Me 4, Deadpool 3, Joker: Folie à Deux, Venom 3, Wicked - Part I, Mufusa: The Lion King, and Sonic the Hedgehog 3, among other films.

International

Preliminary estimates for Latin American box office revenues were approximately $2.4 billion for 2023, up more than 33% compared with 2022.

Box office performance in Latin America is dependent upon the quantity, quality and timing of Hollywood film product, and to a lesser extent, local film product. The performance in Latin American markets is also impacted by political and social conditions, growing populations, and continued retail development.

Drivers of Continued Industry Success

We believe the long-term fundamentals of our industry remain intact:

Consumer Enthusiasm for Theatrical Movie-Going Remains Strong. Sustained consumer enthusiasm to view compelling films in a shared, larger-than-life, cinematic environment continues to be demonstrated across all genres of films, segments of audiences, and periods of the year. Positive box office growth, aligned with film volume recovery and record-setting results of an expansive range of titles across a wide array of film genres further underscore that experiencing captivating film content in a theatrical setting remains an important part of culture and consumer entertainment agendas.

A Theatrical Release Enhances a Film’s Promotional Impact and Overall Asset Value. Theatrical exhibition has long been the primary distribution channel for launching new major motion picture releases. A theatrical release provides an enhanced promotional platform for filmed entertainment content by heightening its exposure, increasing its perceived quality, strengthening recall, and driving greater viewing interest. Furthermore, experiencing content in a shared theatrical environment elevates emotions and engagement with stories and characters, which builds larger brands, franchises, and cultural moments. It also provides an incremental revenue stream, while strengthening performance in downstream distribution channels, including streaming, which enhances overall asset value. Based on these benefits, as well as commentary provided by our film distribution partners, we anticipate the volume of films released each year will continue to recover to historical levels.

Resilient Industry Across Technology Innovations and Economic Cycles. Theatrical movie-going remains one of the most convenient and affordable forms of out-of-home entertainment. As such, it has proven resilient to competition for consumers’ leisure spending, as well as inflationary and recessionary periods. For example, North American industry box office grew in six of the last eight recessions. Additionally, theatrical movie-going has demonstrated stable, long-term growth trends across various technological innovations, including VHS, internet, DVD and streaming.

Our Strategy

Our strategic objectives prioritize experiential consumer-based, revenue-generating, and productivity-driving initiatives, including:

Deliver an Extraordinary Guest Experience. We aim to differentiate our theatres through consistent investment in high-demand consumer amenities that provide a larger-than-life, cinematic entertainment experience with top-notch guest service. Examples of amenities include state-of-the-art sight and sound technology, premium large format auditoriums, recliners, and motion seats, as well as expansive food and beverage offerings. We believe our ongoing focus on providing an extraordinary guest experience is a primary factor of our consistent industry-leading results.

Maximize Attendance and Box Office While Expanding Revenue Opportunities. We actively focus on maximizing attendance and box office results through pricing strategies, sophisticated showtime planning, and pursuit of alternative content that appeals to a broad consumer base. We also continue to invest in strengthening and leveraging our omni-channel marketing platforms and loyalty programs to expand our audience base, increase moviegoing

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frequency and strengthen loyalty to our brand. Additionally, we seek to drive ancillary revenue opportunities through expanding the food, beverage and merchandise products we offer, simplifying speed of service through space management improvements and online mobile ordering, and extending the availability of our offerings beyond our theatres via third-party delivery platforms. Furthermore, we look to monetize our facilities with opportunities including game rooms and private events.

Maintain a Disciplined Focus on Productivity and Profitability. We remain disciplined in our pursuit of continuous improvement, seeking opportunities to simplify processes, streamline operations, remove inefficiencies, and drive productivity. Areas of emphasis include further enhancing our workforce management tools and processes, strengthening inventory management, optimizing showtime planning, leveraging advanced sourcing strategies, and expanding automation opportunities. We continue to enhance data management and analytics to strengthen our decisions and maximize our overall potential. Furthermore, as part of our ongoing focus on profitability, we continuously optimize our footprint, assessing our global circuit to ascertain the most advantageous strategies for growth, recalibration, and strengthening of our theaters to deliver sustained long-term returns.

Competitive Strengths

We believe the following strengths have allowed us to compete effectively in the past and will continue to be our guiding principles:

Disciplined Operating Philosophy. Our operating philosophy focuses on creating an extraordinary guest experience, maintaining favorable theatre-level economics, controlling operating costs and effectively reacting to changes in economic and market conditions.

Balanced Approach to Investment and Capital Allocation. Our balanced and disciplined investment approach centers on thoughtfully reinvesting in our existing theatres, building new theatres and acquiring quality theatres that will complement our circuit. We have long believed in maintaining a strong balance sheet and ensuring our capital investments earn a solid return. This philosophy has proven to be successful for us over varying economic cycles and industry challenges. We remain disciplined with our cash management and capital resource allocation strategies, while continuing to invest in the long-term health of our circuit.

Leading Position in Our U.S. and Latin American Markets. We have a leading market share in most of the U.S. markets we serve, which includes a presence in 42 states. For the year ended December 31, 2023, we ranked either first or second, based on box office revenues, in 21 of our top 25 U.S. markets, including Dallas, the San Francisco Bay Area, Houston, Salt Lake City, Sacramento, Cleveland, Austin and Las Vegas. We were one of the first circuits to begin reopening theatres in the U.S. during 2021, gaining market share of the overall North American box office as a result. We maintained a meaningful portion of these market share gains through 2023.

We have a significant presence in major cities in Latin America, with theatres in 15 of the 20 largest metropolitan areas in Latin America as of December 31, 2023. We are the largest exhibitor in Brazil and Argentina and have significant market presence in Colombia, Peru and Chile. Our geographic diversity makes us an important global distribution channel for the movie studios. Similar to the U.S., we gained overall market share in Latin America upon reopening all of our theatres during 2021. We have retained a meaningful portion of that market share through 2023.

State-of-the-Art Theatre Circuit. We build new theatres and consistently invest in our existing theatres to maintain a state-of-the-art movie-going experience, which we believe makes our theatres preferred destinations for moviegoers in our markets. Making quality investments in our circuit will continue to be one of our primary objectives.

We offer our guests a premium large format experience through our 293 XD auditoriums, which represents the largest exhibitor-branded premium large format footprint in the world, 15 IMAX auditoriums and six ScreenX auditoriums across our worldwide circuit. Our XD auditoriums offer a premium experience utilizing the latest in digital projection and enhanced custom sound, including Barco Auro-Max 11.1 sound systems in select locations. The XD experience includes wall-to-wall screens, wrap-around sound, plush seating, reclining seats in a majority of our XD auditoriums and a maximum comfort entertainment environment for an immersive experience. The benefits of our XD auditoriums include program flexibility, as we can show the content of our choice with no additional revenue share component outside of routine film rental.

We started a multi-year project in 2022 to strategically convert our auditoriums to more energy efficient Barco RGB laser projectors, which provide greater light output than the current technology, further enhancing the

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movie-going experience. As of December 31, 2023, we have transitioned approximately 14% of our auditoriums to the new laser projectors across our worldwide circuit.

We have incorporated Luxury Lounger heated recliner seats into all of our recent domestic new builds and have repositioned many of our existing domestic theatres to offer this premium seating feature. We currently feature these heated recliner luxury loungers in 68% of our total domestic circuit.

We also have auditoriums that offer seats with immersive cinematic motion, which we refer to as motion seats, in 335 auditoriums throughout our circuit. These motion seats are programmed in harmony with the audio and video content of the film and further immerse guests into the on-screen action.

We offer enhanced food and beverages such as gourmet pizzas, burgers, and sandwiches, and a selection of beers, wine and cocktails, all of which can be enjoyed in the comfort of the auditoriums, at a majority of our theatres. We also offer full bars or dine-in areas in many of our locations and we are continuing to expand these amenities to additional locations. In the U.S., we offer advanced mobile concession ordering at virtually all of our U.S. theatres allowing guests to pre-order select concession products and pick them up at the concession stand upon arrival or have them delivered to their seat. We also offer mobile concession ordering in all of our Latin American theatres and delivery to seats in a select number of our premier Latin American theatres.

Experienced Management. Our global management team has extensive industry experience and proven track records. Many of our key leaders have over 20 years of industry experience. Additionally, our country general managers are local citizens familiar with political, social, cultural and economic factors impacting their country, which enables them to more effectively manage the local business. Our global management team has successfully navigated us through many industry and economic cycles over the years.

Theatre Operations

As of December 31, 2023, we operated 501 theatres and 5,719 screens in 42 U.S. states and 13 Latin American countries. We opened our first theatre in the U.S. in 1984. Our domestic circuit has expanded through acquisitions and organic growth, and we currently have theatres in 104 designated market areas. We first entered Latin America when we opened a theatre in Santiago, Chile in 1993. Since then, through a focused international growth strategy, we have developed into one of the most geographically diverse theatre circuits in the region. We have balanced our risk through a diversified international portfolio, which included theatres in 15 of the 20 largest metropolitan areas in Latin America as of December 31, 2023. We are a market leader in Brazil and Argentina, where we are the largest exhibitor. We also have significant market presence in Colombia, Peru and Chile.

The following table summarizes the geographic locations of our theatre circuit as of December 31, 2023.

 

Country

 

Total Theatres

 

 

Total Screens

 

United States

 

 

309

 

 

 

4,324

 

Brazil

 

 

85

 

 

 

622

 

Argentina

 

 

23

 

 

 

199

 

Colombia

 

 

30

 

 

 

177

 

Chile

 

 

20

 

 

 

142

 

Central America (1)

 

 

17

 

 

 

114

 

Peru

 

 

14

 

 

 

113

 

Bolivia

 

 

1

 

 

 

13

 

Paraguay

 

 

2

 

 

 

15

 

Total (2) (3)

 

 

501

 

 

 

5,719

 

(1)
Includes Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Guatemala.
(2)
In January 2023, we closed our theatre in Curacao.
(3)
In September 2023, we sold our Ecuador subsidiary.

Content

We offer a wide variety of content at our theatres. We monitor upcoming film releases and other content and work diligently with film distributors to license content that we believe will be most successful in our theatres. We play mainstream films from many different genres, such as animated films, family films, dramas, comedies, horror and action films. We offer content in both 2-D and 3-D formats in all of our theatres, and in many locations, we offer

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either our own premium large format, XD or IMAX. We also offer a format that features motion seats and added sensory features.

We offer a variety of alternative entertainment content for our guests. Examples include concert, sporting and gaming events, as well as art, independent, faith-based, and multicultural foreign language films. In certain Latin American markets where we operate, we also offer local film product to our guests. Additionally, we have the functionality and technological infrastructure to live-stream events via satellite network across our portfolio of theatres in the U.S. and Latin America.

In addition, our joint venture, AC JV, LLC, with Regal Entertainment Group and AMC Entertainment, Inc. provides marketing and distribution of live and pre-recorded entertainment programming to augment theatres’ feature film schedules. AC JV, LLC, referred to as Fathom Events, is the largest distributor of documentaries and inspirational content as well as classic films and performing arts, such as the Metropolitan Opera.

Film Licensing

In the U.S., our corporate film department negotiates with film distributors to license films for each of our domestic theatres. Local film personnel in our international offices negotiate with local offices of major film distributors, local film distributors and independent content providers to license films for our international theatres. Film distributors determine film release dates and plan and fund the related film marketing campaigns, while we are responsible for booking the films at each of our theatres at the optimal showtimes for our guests.

In both our domestic and international locations, film rental fees are based on a film’s box office receipts. The majority of film rental rates are negotiated on a sliding scale formula, under which the rate is based on a standard rate matrix that is established with each content provider prior to a film’s theatrical run. We may also negotiate some film rental rates on a firm terms formula, a percentage of box office receipts negotiated prior to a film’s theatrical run, or a rate that is negotiated after a film’s theatrical run.

Food and Beverage

Concession sales are our second largest revenue source. We have expanded concession sales by enhancing our offerings and adapting to our customers’ changing preferences, as discussed below.

Product Mix. Core concession products offered at all of our theatres include various sizes and types of popcorn, soft drinks, coffees, non-carbonated drinks, candy and quickly-prepared or pre-prepared food, such as hot dogs, pizza, pretzel bites, nachos and ice cream. Our food and beverage offerings may vary in particular markets based on consumer preferences. We offer adult beverage options for our guests including beer, wine and cocktails, freshly-made signature Pizza Hut pizzas, burgers and sandwiches, as well as some healthier snack options and diverse ethnic foods based on market demographics.

We have dedicated category managers that monitor product sales, upcoming content and events, and make adjustments to product mix on a theatre-by-theatre or market-by-market basis. This approach also allows us to efficiently activate and manage both national or regional product launches and promotional initiatives to further grow food and beverage sales.

New products and promotions are introduced on a regular basis to increase concession purchase incidence from existing consumers as well as to attract new consumers. In certain international countries and in all of our domestic theatres, we offer a free loyalty program that routinely offers food and beverage promotions and rewards. Our paid subscription programs allow our guests to receive exclusive concessions discounts.

Innovation. We offer unique movie-themed merchandise to customers both in our theatres and online to enhance their experience and drive incremental revenue. Additionally, we have partnered with key strategic suppliers to create an online store that offers unique merchandise to guests across the country from the comfort of their homes. We are also the first major theatre exhibition company to partner with Door Dash, Grub Hub, and Uber Eats, to allow consumers to have our concession offerings delivered to their homes.

Theatre Design. Our theatres are designed to optimize the guest purchase experience at the concession stands to facilitate serving guests in an expedited manner. We strategically design large concession stands to heighten visibility, reduce the length of concession lines, and improve traffic flow around the concession stands. We incorporate queue lines and self-serve candy cases and bottled drink coolers at our concession stands to help provide convenience for our guests, drive impulse purchases and increase product visibility for these two core categories. We also have

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self-service cafeteria-style concession areas in many of our domestic theatres, which allow customers to select their own food and refreshments and proceed to the cash register when they are ready. This design allows for more efficient service, and superior visibility of concession items. We also have lobby bars and VIP lounges in many domestic and international theatres.

Our proprietary mobile concessions ordering capability allows moviegoers to purchase their cinema snacks in advance and have them waiting to be picked up upon arrival or delivered directly to their seat. This functionality streamlines the guest experience, adding convenience and enhanced guest service for our customers. As of December 31, 2023, mobile concession ordering is available at virtually all of our U.S. theatres. Similarly, guests in our Latin American locations can pre-pay for select concession products online or at kiosks within the theatre and pick them up at the concession stand.

Staff Training. Employees are continually trained on proper sales techniques, food preparation and handling, and maintaining the quality of our concession product offerings. Many employees are certified in food safety protocols and in serving alcoholic beverages.

Cost Control. We negotiate prices, volume-based rebates and promotional-based rebates for concession products directly with our suppliers. Concession products are generally managed through a distribution network, with theatres placing and receiving orders directly with a distributor. We monitor inventory levels at every theatre to ensure proper stock levels are maintained to appropriately serve our guests.

Supply chain interruptions and inflationary pressures may impact costs and limit product availability. Our food and beverage costs have been especially susceptible to inflationary pressures in more recent periods, particularly for core commodities, which recently experienced elevated inflationary pressures. In an effort to mitigate these pressures, we focus on identifying alternative products sourced from a variety of suppliers as well as implementing strategic pricing actions to help offset the impact of these pressures.

Screen Advertising

Our U.S. theatres are part of the in-theatre digital network operated by National CineMedia, LLC, or NCM. NCM provides advertising to our theatres through its branded “Noovie” pre-show entertainment program and also handles certain lobby promotions and displays for our theatres. We believe that the reach, scope and digital delivery capability of NCM’s network provides an effective platform for national, regional and local advertisers to reach our audiences. We receive a monthly theatre access fee for participation in the NCM network, which includes screen rental revenue on a per patron basis and on a revenue share basis depending on the placement of the advertisement.

Throughout our international markets, we have developed our Flix Media brand that handles screen advertising functions in all of our Latin American countries. Our Flix Media marketing personnel work with local agencies and advertisers to coordinate screen advertising in our theatres as well as other theatres in our markets. In addition to screen advertising in our theatres, we continue to expand Flix Media’s services to include, among other things, alternative content, digital media and other synergistic advertising opportunities.

Marketing and Promotions

Digital Marketing. Our investment in digital marketing and customer experience over the past several years has enabled us to expand our reach to our guests, communicate with them on a consistent basis, and streamline their digital customer journey. We continue to adapt our platforms to engage movie-goers more effectively and make it as compelling and simple as possible for them to purchase their next movie ticket and concessions from us. Through both organic and paid marketing efforts, we keep our millions of guests informed through email, social media, website and mobile app updates, and advertising to promote upcoming content and keep Cinemark elevated in the moviegoer consideration set.

Transforming the digital customer journey has enabled us to more effectively reach movie-goers through targeted and refined search engine optimization, and gives the customer a better experience once they are directed to our website or app. We regularly conduct comprehensive analysis of the customer journey on our channels, making updates that reduce clicks and decrease the friction from search to ticket purchase. Ongoing enhancements result in higher traffic volume to our digital channels and increased ticket and concession purchases.

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In an effort to more deeply engage with our guests, the visual identity and physical flow of our theatres are regularly assessed. This includes keeping all signage, merchandise, food and beverage vessels and employee attire updated and reflective of the modern experience.

Campaigns and Promotions. We market our theatres and special events, including new theatre grand openings, remodel re-openings and VIP events, using email/in-app push messaging, social media communications, digital advertising, and various forms of traditional media advertising. We exhibit previews of coming attractions and current films as part of our on-screen pre-feature program. We offer guests access to movie times, the ability to buy their tickets and reserve their seats in advance, purchase concessions in advance and purchase gift cards at our website www.cinemark.com and via our mobile applications. Guests can subscribe to our emails and push notifications to receive information about current and upcoming films and events at their preferred Cinemark theatre(s), including details about upcoming XD movies, advanced ticket sales, screenings, special events, concerts, live broadcasts, contests, promotions, and our latest concessions and merchandise offerings. We partner with film distributors on a regular basis to promote upcoming films through local, regional and national programs, many of which are exclusive to our theatres.

Social Media. In the evolution of our external communication strategy, we are meeting movie-goers where they are and ensuring we are present as they scroll throughout the day. We interact with moviegoers every day on social media platforms, such as Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat, X (formerly Twitter) and TikTok to provide advanced ticketing, promotions, and event information and to monitor and respond to guests’ questions and feedback.

Membership and Loyalty. Our domestic subscription membership program, Movie Club, offers guests a standard monthly ticket credit, member-pricing for a companion ticket and concession and other transaction discounts for their choice of a monthly or annual fixed price. Movie Club is a unique option to reward our loyal guests and allows us to stay informed of frequent moviegoers’ preferences. Movie Club includes a premium tier, Movie Club Platinum, allowing members with a high visit frequency and/or high volume of ticket purchases during the year to earn additional movie ticket credits, receive an increased concessions discount and the ability to purchase additional tickets at a discounted price.

We offer a free domestic loyalty program, Movie Fan, to our guests in the U.S. Movie Fan allows our moviegoers to earn one point for every dollar they spend. Points can then be redeemed for tickets, concession items and discounts, as well as unique and limited-edition merchandise that relate to films currently playing in our theatres. Our loyalty programs are closely monitored, and new strategies are consistently tested to incentivize consumers to prioritize visiting our theatres.

We also have membership and loyalty programs in most of our international markets that either allow customers to pay a nominal fee for an annual membership card that provides them with certain admissions and concession discounts or that allows guests to earn loyalty points for each purchase. Similar to the Movie Fan program, our points-based international programs offer discounts on movie tickets and concessions.

Our global loyalty programs put us in direct contact with our moviegoers and provide opportunities for us to partner with the studios and our suppliers through targeted promotions.

Competition

We are one of the leaders in the motion picture exhibition industry. We compete against local, regional, national and international exhibitors with respect to attracting guests, licensing films and developing new theatre sites. Our primary U.S. competitors include Regal and AMC and our primary international competitors, which vary by country, include Cinépolis, Cine Colombia, CinePlanet, Kinoplex (GSR), UCI, Royal Films and Araujo.

We are generally able to book films at our theatres without regard to the film bookings of other exhibitors. Our success in attracting guests can depend on customer service quality, location, theatre capacity, quality of projection and sound equipment, film showtime availability and ticket prices.

We compete for new theatre sites with other movie theatre exhibitors as well as other entertainment venues. Securing a potential site depends upon factors such as commercial terms, available investment resources, theatre design and capacity, revenue potential and financial stability of developers as well as exhibitors.

We face competition from other forms of out-of-home entertainment competing for the public’s leisure time and disposable income, including family entertainment centers, concerts, theme parks and sporting events. We also

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face competition for guests from a number of alternative film distribution channels, such as streaming services, digital downloads, video on-demand and network television.

Seasonality

Our revenues have historically been seasonal, coinciding with the timing of releases of motion pictures by the major distributors. The most successful motion pictures have historically been released during summer months in the U.S., extending from May to July, and during the holiday season, extending from November through year-end. In our Latin American markets, while Hollywood content has similar release dates as in the U.S., the local holidays and seasons vary. The unexpected emergence of a hit film during other periods or the failure of an expected success at a key time could alter this seasonality trend. The timing, quantity and quality of film releases can have a significant effect on our results of operations, and the results of one quarter are not necessarily indicative of results for the next quarter or for the same period in the following year.

Corporate Operations

Our global headquarters, referred to as the Cinemark Service Center, or CSC, is located in Plano, Texas. Personnel at the CSC provide oversight and support for our domestic and international theatres and includes our executive team and department heads in charge of film licensing, food and beverage, theatre operations, theatre construction and maintenance, real estate, human resources, marketing, legal, finance, accounting, tax and information technology. Our U.S. operations are comprised of regions headed by a regional vice president. We have eight regional offices in Latin America responsible for the local management of theatres in 13 countries as of December 31, 2023 (Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Guatemala are managed out of one Central American regional office). Each regional office is headed by a general manager or a member of our international management team with additional personnel responsible for film licensing, marketing, human resources, information technology, operations and finance. We have divisional or regional chief financial officers in several of the international countries in which we operate.

Human Capital

Our business is seasonal and therefore, our headcount can vary throughout the year depending on the timing and success of movie releases. We do not have unionized employees within our domestic employee base, however many of our international locations are subject to union contracts.

We currently have approximately 17,500 employees in the U.S., approximately 21% of whom are full-time employees and 79% of whom are part-time employees. We have approximately 9,300 employees in our international markets, approximately 57% of whom are full-time employees and approximately 43% of whom are part-time employees.

In our Mission, Vision and Values Statement, our employees form the core of our Cinemark Values. We strive to (i) act with honesty and integrity, respect and care for each other, our guests, communities and partners, (ii) provide a safe environment for our global employees and guests, (iii) be the best in what we do and (iv) empower our people to make decisions and take responsibility. Guided by our Cinemark Values, we are committed to creating a company where everyone is included and respected, and where we support each other in reaching our full potential. We take pride in the fact that many of our employees, ranging from field employees to executive management, have significant tenure with the Company.

To attract and retain the most qualified talent, we offer competitive benefits, including market-competitive compensation, healthcare, paid time off, parental leave, free movie passes and in the U.S., a 401(k) retirement savings and investment plan with generous Company match. Additionally, many of our CSC employees are eligible to work a hybrid schedule. We support the continuous development of professional, technical and leadership skills of our employees by offering tuition assistance, skills development courses and leadership development training in partnership with reputable institutions.

To foster a corporate culture of transparency and collaboration, our senior management regularly conducts “town-hall” style meetings with employees to share, among other matters, the Company’s performance, business conditions and market challenges, strategies and initiatives, and to respond to employee concerns through question-and-answer sessions. Employees in the U.S. are also encouraged to provide feedback about their experience through periodic employee engagement surveys. These voluntary surveys provide overall and department-specific reports and

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enable us to improve employee experience and culture. We aspire to provide a safe, open and accountable work environment for our employees. We also provide a hotline for all employees to report workplace concerns and violations with the option to report on an anonymous basis. We address such concerns and take appropriate actions that uphold our Cinemark Values.

In recognition and gratitude for our moviegoing communities, we strongly encourage team members to give back to the community and host periodic service days for team members. Through Cinemark Cares, we support local and national charitable organizations through monetary and product donations, or donations of employees’ time or expertise. We are a proud long-term partner of several charities and host an annual golf tournament to raise funds for these and other selected charities.

Regulations

The distribution of motion pictures is largely regulated by antitrust laws and was the subject of numerous antitrust cases in the past. The manner in which we can license films from certain major film distributors has been influenced by consent decrees and other court orders resulting from these cases. Consent decrees that bound certain major film distributors expired during 2022. These consent decrees required distributors to offer and license films to exhibitors, including Cinemark, on a theatre-by-theatre and film-by-film basis. Consequently, exhibitors have not entered into long-term arrangements with major distributors but must negotiate for licenses on a theatre-by-theatre and film-by-film basis. While the consent decrees may no longer be in effect, we are still subject to the antitrust laws, and we do not anticipate a material shift in the way films are licensed.

We are subject to various general regulations applicable to our operations including the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, or the ADA, and regulations promulgated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and certain state laws that require nutrition labels for certain menu items. Our domestic and international theatre operations are also subject to federal, state and local laws governing such matters as data privacy, wages, working conditions, citizenship, health and sanitation requirements and various business licensing and permitting.

Financial Information About Geographic Areas

We currently have operations in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Guatemala, Bolivia, and Paraguay, which are reflected in the consolidated financial statements. See Note 22 to the consolidated financial statements for segment information and financial information by geographic area.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

An investment in Holdings’ common stock or Holdings’ or CUSA’s debt securities involves risks and uncertainties, and our actual results and future trends may differ materially from our past or projected future performance. We urge investors to consider carefully the risk factors described below in addition to the other information contained in this report, in evaluating our Company and our business. It is not possible to identify all risk factors, and additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial that may also materially impact our business operations.

Risks Related to Our Business, Economic, Market and Operating Conditions

 

A variety of uncontrollable events may disrupt our businesses, reduce guest attendance, or increase the cost or reduce the profitability of providing our products and services.

 

Our results of operations can be significantly and adversely affected in the U.S., Latin America or in specific regions as a result of a variety of factors beyond our control, including: health concerns (including as it was by COVID-19 and could be by future health emergencies, endemics, epidemics and pandemics); adverse weather conditions arising from short-term weather patterns or long-term climate change, including catastrophic events or natural disasters such as hurricanes, typhoons, floods, droughts, wildfires and earthquakes; international, political or military developments, including trade and other international disputes and social unrest; macroeconomic conditions, including a decline in economic activity, inflation, deflation and foreign exchange rate fluctuations; and terrorist attacks. These events and others, such as fluctuations in energy costs and computer virus attacks, intrusions, ransom ware or other widespread computing or telecommunications failures, may also damage our ability to provide our services. We may

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have insurance coverage with respect to some, but not all, of these events. Moreover, the costs of protecting against such incidents reduces the profitability of our operations.

 

For example, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic had an unprecedented impact on the theatrical exhibition industry. While the industry has made significant progress in its recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, our industry and our business continues to be impacted by disruptions in the film production cycle. Most recently the Hollywood writers’ and actors’ guild strikes caused film production to be temporarily halted or delayed and new film releases were postponed, resulting in a reduction in the volume of new films available for theatrical exhibition. As a result, we are not currently generating attendance and revenue from admissions at levels comparable to what we had generated historically.

 

We obtain insurance against the risk of losses relating to some of these events, generally including certain physical damage to our property and resulting business interruption, certain injuries occurring on our property and some liabilities for alleged breach of legal responsibilities. When insurance is obtained it is subject to deductibles, exclusions, terms, conditions and limits of liability. The types and levels of coverage we obtain vary from time to time depending on our view of the likelihood of specific types and levels of loss compared to the cost of obtaining coverage for such types and levels of loss. We may experience material losses not covered by our insurance.

Our business depends on film production and performance.

Our business depends on both the availability of films for exhibition in our theatres and the success of those films in our markets. Reduced volume of film releases, poor performance of films, the disruption in the production of films due to events such as a strike by directors, writers, actors or other industry related unions or guilds, a reduction in financing options for the film distributors, a reduction in the production and marketing efforts of the film distributors to make and promote their films, or the consolidation of major film distributors could have an adverse effect on our business by resulting in fewer patrons and reduced revenue. For example, the May 2, 2023 strike by the Writers Guild of America, which lasted for almost five months, and the July 14, 2023 strike by members of SAG-AFTRA, the union representing television and movie actors, which lasted almost four months, together resulted in a decrease in film content released in 2023 and will cause a decrease in 2024 film content due to production delays that have forced studios to push films previously slated to be released in 2023 and 2024 to 2025 and 2026. Also, while the quantity of new film releases available for theatrical exhibition continued to improve in 2023 and caused the industry to further recover from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, the volume of film content has not reverted to historical levels. The volume of new films has not, and may not, fully recover to pre-pandemic levels which would materially impact our business. In addition, certain studios have reduced the window for video and digital releases or released films directly to alternative distribution channels such as streaming services simultaneous with a theatrical release. Studios may determine that certain types of film content will not be released for theatrical exhibition in the future and will go straight to streaming platforms, further impacting the quantity of films available.

Our results of operations fluctuate on a seasonal basis.

Our results of operations vary from period to period based upon the quantity and quality of the motion pictures that we show in our theatres. The major film distributors generally release the films they anticipate will be most successful during the summer and holiday seasons. Consequently, we typically generate higher revenue during those periods. In our Latin American markets, while Hollywood content has similar release dates as in the U.S., the local holidays and seasons vary. The unexpected emergence of a successful film during other periods or the failure of an expected success at a key time could alter this seasonality trend. Due to the dependency on the success of films released from one period to the next, results of operations for one period may not be indicative of the results for future periods.

 

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A deterioration in relationships with film distributors could adversely affect our ability to obtain commercially successful films.

We rely on the film distributors to supply the films shown in our theatres. The film distribution business is highly concentrated, with six major film distributors accounting for approximately 85% of U.S. box office revenues and 45 of the top 50 grossing films during 2023. Film distributors license films to exhibitors on a theatre-by-theatre and film-by-film basis. Consequently, we cannot guarantee a supply of films by entering into long-term arrangements with major distributors. A deterioration in our relationship with any of the major film distributors could adversely affect our ability to obtain commercially successful films and to negotiate favorable licensing terms for such films, both of which could adversely affect our business and operating results.

We face intense competition for patrons and films which may adversely affect our business.

The motion picture exhibition industry is highly competitive. We compete against local, regional, national and international exhibitors in many of our markets. We compete for both patrons and licensing of films. In markets where we do not face nearby competitive theatres, there is a risk of new theatres being built. The degree of competition for patrons is dependent upon such factors as location, theatre capacity, presentation quality, film showtime and availability, customer service quality, products and amenities offered, and ticket prices. The principal competitive factors with respect to film licensing include the theatre’s location and its demographics, the condition, capacity and grossing potential of each theatre, and licensing terms. We also face competition from new concept theatres such as dine-in theatres, tavern style theatres and family entertainment centers that open in close proximity to our conventional theatres. If we are unable to attract patrons or license successful films, our business may be adversely affected.

An increase in competing forms of entertainment or the use of alternative film distribution channels may reduce movie theatre attendance and limit revenue growth.

We compete with other forms of out-of-home entertainment, such as family entertainment centers, concerts, theme parks, gaming and sporting events, for our patrons’ leisure time and disposable income. We also face competition for patrons from a number of alternative film distribution channels, such as streaming, digital downloads, video on-demand and network television. We have seen an expansion in some of these distribution channels in recent years. A significant increase in popularity of these alternative film distribution channels, competing forms of entertainment or improvements in technologies available at home could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

Our results of operations may be impacted by the reduction, or elimination of, video and digital release windows.

The average video and digital release window, which represents the time that elapses from the date of a film’s theatrical release to the date a film is available for DVD, was approximately 90 days and digital purchase for ownership (also known as electronic sell-through) was approximately 74 days for several years prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, certain studios adopted strategies that reduced, or in some cases eliminated, the release windows. While the dynamic release window has coalesced to around 45 days for major films, select studios may release certain movie titles to their own streaming platforms either simultaneously with theatrical releases or bypass theatrical releases altogether. While this trend has largely diminished in 2022 and 2023, studios may reduce or eliminate the windows for certain films. If our guests choose to wait for an in-home release rather than attend a theatre to view the film, our business and results of operations, financial condition and cash flows may be adversely impacted.

Our foreign operations are subject to adverse regulations, economic instability and currency exchange risk.

We had 192 theatres with 1,395 screens in 13 countries in Latin America as of December 31, 2023. Brazil represented approximately 7.6% of our consolidated 2023 revenue. Governmental regulation of the motion picture industry in foreign markets differs from that in the U.S. Changes in regulations affecting prices and quota systems requiring the exhibition of locally-produced films may adversely affect our international operations. Our international operations are subject to certain political, economic and other uncertainties not encountered by our domestic operations, including risks of severe economic downturns and high inflation. We also face risks of currency fluctuations, hard currency shortages and controls of foreign currency exchange and cash payments to the U.S., all of which could have an adverse effect on the results of our operations and liquidity.

Tight labor market and loss of key personnel may negatively impact our operations and operating results.

Labor shortages may affect our ability to hire and retain employees. The success of our business depends on our ability to recruit and retain our theatre staff. Without proper staffing, wait times to buy tickets and concessions

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may be extended and operating hours may be reduced. These conditions could result in a poor guest experience, which could adversely affect future attendance. We could face similar challenges with respect to retaining corporate employees. Losing the services of one or more senior executives, or other key personnel, could adversely affect our ability to execute our business strategies and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations, especially if we were unable to timely employ a qualified replacement. Labor shortages could also result in rising wages, affecting our profits.

We are subject to impairment losses due to potential declines in the fair value of our assets.

We have a significant amount of long-lived assets. We evaluate long-lived assets for impairment at the theatre level. Therefore, if a theatre is directly and individually impacted by increased competition, adverse changes in market demographics, or adverse changes in the development or condition of the areas surrounding the theatre, we may record impairment charges to reflect the decline in estimated fair value of that theatre.

We also have a significant amount of goodwill and tradename intangible assets. Declines in our stock price or market capitalization, or declines in our attendance due to increased competition, macroeconomic conditions or other factors could result in impairments of goodwill and our intangible assets.

We are subject to uncertainties relating to future expansion plans, including our ability to identify suitable acquisition candidates or new theatre site locations, and to obtain financing for such activities on favorable terms or at all.

We have expanded our operations through targeted worldwide theatre development and acquisitions. We continue to pursue a strategy of expansion that involves the development of new theatres and may involve acquisitions of existing theatres and theatre circuits both in the U.S. and internationally. There is significant competition for new site locations and for existing theatre and theatre circuit acquisition opportunities. As a result of such competition, we may not be able to acquire attractive new site locations, existing theatres or theatre circuits on terms we consider acceptable. The pace of our growth may also be impacted by delays in site development caused by other parties. Acquisitions and expansion opportunities may divert a significant amount of management’s time away from the operation of our business. Growth by acquisition also involves risks relating to difficulties in integrating the operations and personnel of acquired companies and the potential loss of key employees of acquired companies. Our potential expansion strategy may not result in improvements to our business, financial condition, profitability or cash flows. Further, our expansion programs may require financing above our existing borrowing capacity and operating cash flows. We may not be able to obtain such financing on acceptable terms, or at all.

Risks Related to Financing and Liquidity

We have substantial long-term lease and debt obligations, which may restrict our ability to fund current and future operations and that restrict our ability to enter into certain transactions.

We have significant long-term debt service obligations and long-term lease obligations. As of December 31, 2023, Holdings had $2,432.1 million in long-term debt obligations, which included $1,972.1 million of CUSA debt and excludes unamortized debt issuance costs and original issue discount. As of December 31, 2023, Holdings and CUSA had $87.8 million in finance lease obligations and $853.3 million in long-term operating lease obligations. The substantial lease and debt obligations could:

require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flows to payments on our lease and debt obligations, thereby reducing the availability of our cash flows from operations to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other corporate requirements and to pay dividends on Holdings’ common stock;
impede our ability to obtain additional financing in the future for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions and other purposes;
subject us to the risk of increased sensitivity to interest rate increases on our variable rate debt;
limit our ability to invest in innovations in technology and implement new platforms or concepts in our theatres; and

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make us more vulnerable to adverse economic, market and industry conditions, limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business operations or to our industry overall, and place us at a disadvantage in relation to our competitors that may have lower debt levels.

Holdings’ and CUSA’s ability to make scheduled payments of principal and interest on their respective indebtedness will depend on our ability to generate positive cash flows and on our future financial results. Our ability to generate positive cash flows is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, regulatory and other factors, some of which are beyond our control. As our industry recovers from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the recent writers’ and actors’ guild strikes, we may not be able to generate cash flows at historical levels, or guarantee that future borrowings will be available under our senior secured credit facility, in an amount sufficient to enable us to pay our indebtedness. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our lease and debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay capital expenditures, sell assets or operations, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to take any of these actions, and these actions may not be successful or permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. Certain actions may be restricted under the terms of our existing or future debt agreements, including our senior secured credit facility.

If we fail to make any required payment under the agreements governing our indebtedness or fail to comply with the financial and operating covenants contained in our debt instruments, we would be in default. As a result, our debt holders would have the ability to accelerate the repayment of our outstanding indebtedness, and the lenders under our senior secured credit facility could terminate their commitments and foreclose against the assets securing their borrowings. We could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. The acceleration of our indebtedness under one agreement may permit acceleration of indebtedness under other agreements that contain cross-default and cross-acceleration provisions. If our indebtedness is accelerated, we may not be able to repay our indebtedness or borrow sufficient funds to refinance it. Even if we are able to obtain new financing, it may not be on commercially reasonable terms or on terms that are acceptable to us. If our debt holders require immediate payment, we may not have sufficient assets to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness.

A lowering or withdrawal of the ratings assigned or a change in outlook to our outstanding debt securities by rating agencies may increase our future borrowing costs and reduce our access to capital.

We are rated by nationally recognized rating agencies. The rating scales and methodologies used to derive individual ratings may vary from agency to agency. Credit ratings are issued by credit rating agencies based on evaluations of our ability to pay back our outstanding debt and the likelihood that we would default on that debt prior to its maturity. The credit ratings issued by the rating agencies represent the rating agency's evaluation of both qualitative and quantitative information for our company. The credit ratings that are issued are based on the rating agency’s judgment and experience in determining what information should be considered in giving a rating to a particular company. Ratings are always subject to change and there can be no assurance that our current ratings will remain the same for any given period of time.

Our debt currently has a non-investment grade rating, and any rating assigned could be lowered (or outlook thereof could be changed) or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in that rating agency’s judgment, future circumstances relating to the basis of the rating, such as adverse changes in our business or industry, so warrant. Any future lowering of our ratings likely would make it more difficult or more expensive for us to obtain additional debt financing. In particular, our access to the capital markets may be impacted, our other funding sources may decrease, the cost of debt may increase as a result of increased interest rates or fees, and we may be required to provide additional credit assurances, including collateral, under certain contracts or arrangements.

Holdings’ inability to raise funds necessary to settle conversions of, or to repurchase, the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes (as defined below), upon a fundamental change as described in the indenture governing the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes, may lead to defaults under such indenture and under agreements governing our existing or future indebtedness.

If Holdings settles the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes with cash, or by a combination of cash and shares of our common stock, upon a fundamental change as described in the indenture governing the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes, Holdings will be required to make cash payments with respect to the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes being converted. However, Holdings may not have enough available cash or be able to obtain financing at the time it is required to settle the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes being surrendered or converted. In addition, Holdings’ ability to settle the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes or to pay cash upon conversion of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes is limited by the agreements governing CUSA’s existing indebtedness and may also be limited by law, by regulatory

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authority or by agreements that will govern future indebtedness. Holdings’ failure to settle the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the indenture governing the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes or to pay cash payable on future conversions of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes as required by such indenture would constitute a default under such indenture. A default under the indenture governing the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing CUSA’s existing or future indebtedness.

The conditional conversion feature of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

In the event the conditional conversion feature of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes is triggered, holders of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes will be entitled to convert the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes, Holdings may elect to satisfy its conversion obligations by payment and delivery of a combination of cash and shares of its common stock. Settlement of this conversion obligation through the payment of cash could adversely affect Holdings’ and CUSA’s liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes, Holdings could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which would result in a material reduction of its net working capital.

Conversion of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes may dilute the ownership interest of existing stockholders, or may otherwise depress the price of Holdings’ common stock.

The conversion of some or all of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes will dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders to the extent Holdings delivers shares of its common stock upon conversion of any of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes. The 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes may from time to time in the future be convertible at the option of their holders prior to their scheduled terms under certain circumstances. Any sales in the public market of the common stock issuable upon such conversion could adversely affect prevailing market prices of its common stock. In addition, the existence of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes could be used to satisfy short positions, or anticipated conversion of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes into shares of Holdings’ common stock could depress the price of Holdings’ common stock.

The 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes Hedge Transactions and Warrant Transactions (each as defined below) may affect the value of Holdings’ common stock.

In connection with the pricing of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes, Holdings entered into Hedge Transactions with, and sold Warrants (as defined below) to, Option Counterparties (as defined below). The Hedge Transactions are expected generally to reduce the potential dilution to Holdings’ common stock upon any conversion of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes and/or offset any cash payments Holdings is required to make in excess of the principal amount of converted 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes, as the case may be. The Warrants would separately have a dilutive effect to the extent that the market price per share of Holdings’ common stock exceeds the strike price of any Warrants on the applicable expiration dates unless, subject to the terms of the Warrants, Holdings elects to cash settle the Warrants. In addition, the Option Counterparties or their respective affiliates may modify their hedge positions by entering into or unwinding various derivatives with respect to Holdings’ common stock and/or purchasing or selling Holdings’ common stock or other securities of Holdings’ in secondary market transactions prior to the maturity of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes (and are likely to do so during any observation period related to a conversion of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes or following any repurchase of the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes by us in connection with any fundamental change repurchase date or otherwise). This activity could also cause or avoid an increase or decrease in the market price of Holdings’ common stock.

In addition, if any such Hedge Transactions and Warrants fail to become effective, the Option Counterparties or their respective affiliates may unwind their hedge positions with respect to Holdings’ common stock, which could adversely affect the market price of its common stock. The potential effect, if any, of these transactions and activities on the market price of Holdings’ common stock will depend in part on market conditions and cannot be ascertained at this time. Any of these activities could adversely affect the value of Holdings’ common stock.

 

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Holdings is subject to counterparty risk with respect to the 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes Hedge Transactions.

The Option Counterparties are financial institutions or affiliates of financial institutions, and Holdings will be subject to the risk that one or more of such Option Counterparties may default under the Hedge Transactions. Holdings’ exposure to the credit risk of the Option Counterparties will not be secured by any collateral. If any Option Counterparty becomes subject to insolvency proceedings, Holdings will become an unsecured creditor in those proceedings with a claim equal to its exposure at that time under its transactions with that counterparty. Holdings’ exposure will depend on many factors but, generally, the increase in Holdings’ exposure will be correlated to the increase in Holdings’ common stock market price and the volatility of the market price of Holdings’ common stock. In addition, upon a default by the Option Counterparty, Holdings may suffer adverse tax consequences and more dilution than it currently anticipates with respect to its common stock. Holdings can provide no assurance as to the financial stability or viability of any Option Counterparty.

A credit market crisis may adversely affect our ability to raise capital and may materially impact our operations.

Severe dislocations and liquidity disruptions in the credit markets could materially impact our ability to obtain debt financing on reasonable terms or at all. The inability to access debt financing on reasonable terms could materially impact our ability to make acquisitions, invest in technology innovations or significantly expand our business in the future.

Holdings’ ability to pay dividends may be limited or otherwise restricted.

Holdings’ ability to pay dividends is limited by its status as a holding company and the terms of CUSA’s senior notes indentures and CUSA’s senior secured credit facility, which restrict Holdings’ ability to pay dividends and the ability of certain of its subsidiaries to pay dividends, directly or indirectly, to Holdings. Under CUSA’s debt instruments, we may pay a cash dividend up to a specified amount, provided we have satisfied certain financial covenants in, and are not in default under, CUSA’s debt instruments. The declaration of future dividends on Holdings’ common stock, par value $0.001 per share, or Common Stock, will be at the discretion of Holdings’ board of directors and will depend upon many factors, including our results of operations, cash flows, financial condition, earnings, capital requirements, limitations in CUSA’s debt agreements and legal requirements. Holdings suspended its dividend in March 2020 due to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and it is uncertain when Holdings will resume paying dividends.

Future sales of Holdings’ common stock may adversely affect the prevailing market price.

Future sales of substantial amounts of Holdings’ common stock in the open market and the issuance of the shares reserved for potential future issuance under Holdings’ incentive plan, in exchange for outstanding warrants, conversion of outstanding 4.50% Convertible Senior Notes, or in connection with acquisitions or other corporate events, will be dilutive to Holdings’ existing stockholders and could result in a decrease in Holdings’ stock price. Holdings cannot predict whether substantial amounts of its common stock will be sold in the open market in anticipation of, or following, any divestiture by any of its large stockholders, its directors or executive officers of their shares of common stock. Holdings can also issue shares of its common stock which are authorized but unissued and not reserved for any specific purpose without any action or approval by its stockholders.

We may not be able to generate additional revenue or continue to realize value from our investment in NCMI.

As of December 31, 2023, we owned 4.4 million shares of National Cinemedia, Inc. (“NCMI”), which represented an ownership interest in NCM of approximately 4.5%. NCMI is a holding company that serves as the sole manager of NCM. NCM comprises approximately the entire balance of NCMI’s assets, liabilities and operating cash flows. CUSA receives monthly theatre access and advertising fees under an Exhibitor Services Agreement with NCM, and CUSA is entitled to receive quarterly distributions of excess cash from NCM pursuant to NCM’s operating agreement. During the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023, Holdings and CUSA each recorded approximately $44.1 million, $52.2 million and $53.3 million in other revenue related to NCM, respectively, and $0.3 million, $0 million and $0 million in cash distributions, respectively. On April 11, 2023, NCM filed a petition for reorganization under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code. NCMI continued to manage NCM, the “debtor in possession,” under the jurisdiction of the bankruptcy court and in accordance with the applicable bankruptcy laws and orders of the bankruptcy court. In general, as debtor in possession under the Bankruptcy Code, NCM was authorized to continue to operate as an ongoing business but could not engage in transactions outside the ordinary course of business without the prior approval of the bankruptcy court. On August 3, 2023, NCMI announced that it had effected a 1-for-10 reverse stock split of its common stock. NCMI’s common stock automatically began trading

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on a split adjusted basis at the opening of the market on August 4, 2023. After giving effect to the reverse stock split, the Company owns approximately 4.4 million shares of NCMI common stock. NCM emerged from bankruptcy on August 7, 2023, and the Company’s ownership interest in NCMI was reduced to less than 5%. Distributions of excess cash from NCM to its members, including NCMI, were restricted through December 2023 in accordance with the credit agreement amendment NCM entered into with its lenders and as a result of their bankruptcy filing. NCMI also suspended its dividend.

Cinema advertising is a small component of the U.S. advertising market and therefore, NCM competes with larger, more established and well-known media platforms such as broadcast radio and television, cable and satellite television, outdoor advertising and Internet portals. In-theatre advertising may not continue to attract advertisers or NCM’s in-theatre advertising format may not continue to be received favorably by theatre patrons. If NCM is unable to continue to generate consistent advertising revenue, its results of operations may be adversely affected and our investment in NCM may be adversely impacted. Since NCM's revenues are primarily dependent on theatre attendance, future NCM revenues and future dividends from NCMI will depend on the continued recovery of the motion picture exhibition industry.

Regulatory Risks

We are subject to various government regulations which could result in substantial costs.

We are subject to various federal, state and local laws, regulations and administrative practices in the U.S. and internationally. We must comply with laws regulating, among other things, antitrust activities, employment environment, sale of concession goods, alcoholic beverages, data protection and privacy and Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 ("ADA") and similar state disability rights laws. Compliance with the ADA and similar disability rights laws requires us as a public accommodation to reasonably accommodate individuals with disabilities. This applies to the construction of new theatres, certain renovations, existing theatres, websites and mobile applications and presentations for the blind, deaf and hard of hearing. Changes in existing laws, regulations or administrative practices or new laws, regulations or administrative practices could have a significant impact on our business.

We may face data protection, data security, and privacy risks in connection with privacy regulation.

Strict data privacy laws regulating the collection, transmission, storage and use of employee data and consumers’ personally identifying information are evolving in the U.S. and other jurisdictions in which we operate. These laws impose compliance obligations for the collection, use, retention, security, processing, transfer and deletion of personally identifiable information of individuals and creates enhanced rights for individuals. These changes in the legal and regulatory environments in the areas of customer and employee privacy, data security, and cross-border data flows could have a material adverse effect on our business, primarily through the impairment of our marketing and transaction processing activities, the limitation on the types of information that we may collect, process and retain, the resulting costs of complying with such legal and regulatory requirements and potential monetary forfeitures and penalties for noncompliance.

We may be subject to increased labor and benefits costs.

In the U.S., we are subject to United States federal and state laws governing such matters as minimum wages, working conditions and overtime. We are also subject to union regulations in certain of our international markets, which can specify wage rates as well as minimum hours to be paid to certain employees. As federal and state minimum wage rates increase, we may need to increase not only the wages of our minimum wage employees, but also the wages paid to employees at wage rates that are above minimum wage. Labor market conditions have also recently driven increases in wages across our labor base and similar increases may continue in the future. Labor shortages, increased employee turnover and health care mandates could also increase our labor costs. This in turn could lead us to increase prices, which could impact our sales. Conversely, if competitive pressures or other factors prevent us from offsetting increased labor costs by increases in prices, our results of operations may be adversely impacted.

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Provisions in Holdings’ corporate documents and certain of CUSA’s agreements, as well as Delaware law, may hinder a change of control.

Provisions in the Holdings amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as well as provisions of the Delaware General Corporation Law, could discourage unsolicited proposals to acquire us. These provisions include:

authorization of Holdings’ board of directors to issue shares of preferred stock without stockholder approval;
a board of directors classified into three classes of directors with the directors of each class having staggered, three-year terms;
provisions regulating the ability of Holdings’ stockholders to nominate directors for election or to bring matters for action at annual meetings of its stockholders; and
provisions of Delaware law that restrict many business combinations and provide that directors serving on classified boards of directors, may be removed only for cause.

Certain provisions of CUSA’s 8.75% secured notes indenture, 5.25% senior notes indenture, CUSA’s 5.875% senior notes indenture and CUSA’s senior secured credit facility may have the effect of delaying or preventing future transactions involving a “change of control.” A “change of control” would require us to make an offer to the holders of each of its 8.75% Secured Notes, 5.25% Senior Notes and 5.875% Senior Notes to repurchase all of the outstanding notes at a purchase price equal to 101% of the aggregate principal amount outstanding plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date of purchase. A “change of control” would also be an event of default under CUSA’s senior secured credit facility.

Risks Related to Information Security and Business Disruptions

An information security incident, including a cyber security breach, and our failure to protect our electronically stored data could adversely affect our business or reputation.

We collect, use, store and maintain electronic information and data necessary to conduct our business, including confidential and proprietary information of the company, our customers, and our employees. We also rely on the availability of information technology systems to operate our business, including for communications, receiving and displaying movies, ticketing, guest services, payments, and other general operations. We rely on some of our vendors to store and process certain data and to manage, host, and/or provide some of our information technology systems. Because of the scope and complexity of our information technology systems, our reliance on vendors to provide, support and protect our systems and data, and the constantly evolving cyber-threat landscape, our information technology systems are subject to the risk of disruption, failure, unauthorized access, cyber-terrorism, human error, misuse, tampering, theft, and other cyber-attacks. These or similar events, whether accidental or intentional, could result in theft, unauthorized access or disclosure, loss, fraudulent or unlawful use of customer, employee or company data, which could harm our reputation or result in a loss of business, as well as remedial and other costs, fines, investigations, enforcement actions or lawsuits. These or similar events could also lead to an interruption in the operation of our systems resulting in business impact, including loss of business. These same factors could also affect our ability to adapt to and comply with changing regulations and contractual obligations applicable to data security and privacy, which are increasingly demanding, both in the United States and in other jurisdictions where we operate. In order to address these risks, we have adopted security measures and technology, operate a security program, and work continuously to evaluate and improve our security posture. However, the development and maintenance of these systems and programs are costly and require ongoing monitoring and updating as technologies change and efforts to overcome security measures become more sophisticated. As such, there can be no assurance that these or similar events will not occur in the future or will not have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

In addition to Company-specific cyber threats or events, our business and results of operations could also be impacted by cyber-related events affecting our peers and partners within the entertainment industry, as well as other retail companies. We maintain insurance designed to provide coverage for cyber risks related to what we believe to be adequate and collectible insurance in the event of the theft, loss, fraudulent or unlawful use of customer, employee or company data, but the foregoing events or future events could result in costs and business impacts which may not be covered or may be in excess of any available insurance that we may have procured. As a result, future events could have a material impact on our business and adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

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Other General Risks

A failure to adapt to future technological innovations could impact our ability to compete effectively and could adversely affect our results of operations.

While we continue to invest in technological innovations, such as laser projectors and motion seats, new technological innovations continue to impact our industry. If we are unable to respond to or invest in changes in technology and the technological preferences of our customers, we may not be able to compete with other exhibitors or other entertainment venues, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

Legislative or regulatory initiatives related to global warming/climate change concerns may negatively impact our business.

Recently, there has been an increasing focus and continuous debate on global climate change including increased attention from regulatory agencies and legislative bodies. This increased focus may lead to new initiatives directed at regulating an as-yet unspecified array of environmental matters. Legislative, regulatory or other efforts in the U.S. to combat climate change could result in future increases in the cost of raw materials, taxes, transportation and utilities for our vendors and for us which would result in higher operating costs for the Company. Also, compliance of our theatres and accompanying real estate with new and revised environmental, zoning, land-use or building codes, laws, rules or regulations, could have a material and adverse effect on our business. However, we are unable to predict at this time, the potential effects, if any, that any future environmental initiatives may have on our business.

We may be subject to liability under environmental laws and regulations.

We own and operate a large number of theatres and other properties within the U.S. and internationally, which may be subject to various foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment or human health. Such environmental laws and regulations include those that impose liability for the investigation and remediation of spills or releases of hazardous materials. We may incur such liability, including for any currently or formerly owned, leased or operated property, or for any site, to which we may have disposed, or arranged for the disposal of, hazardous materials or wastes. Certain of these laws and regulations may impose liability, including joint and several liability, which can result in a liable party being obliged to pay for greater than its share, regardless of fault or the legality of the original disposal. Environmental conditions relating to our properties or operations could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations and cash flows.

Product recalls and associated costs could adversely affect our reputation and financial condition.

We may be found liable if the consumption of any of the products we sell causes illness or injury. We are also subject to recall by product manufacturers or if the food products become contaminated. Recalls could result in losses due to the cost of the recall, the destruction of the product and lost sales due to the unavailability of the product for a period of time.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 1C. Cybersecurity

Risk Management and Strategy. The Company has developed an information security program to address material risks from cybersecurity threats. The program includes policies and procedures that identify how security measures and controls are developed, implemented, and maintained. Risk-based analysis and judgment, along with a recognized security framework, are used to select security controls to address risks. During this process, the following factors, among others, are considered: likelihood and severity of risk, impact on the Company and others if a risk materializes, feasibility and cost of controls, and impact of controls on operations and others. Specific controls that are used to some extent include endpoint threat detection and response (EDR), identity and access management (IAM), privileged access management (PAM), logging and monitoring involving the use of security information and event management (SIEM), multi-factor authentication (MFA), firewalls and intrusion detection and prevention, and vulnerability and patch management.

Third-party security firms are used in different capacities to provide or operate some of these controls and technology systems, including cloud-based platforms and services, as well as a security operations center. For example, third parties are used to conduct assessments, such as vulnerability scans and penetration testing. The

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Company uses a variety of processes to address cybersecurity threats related to the use of third-party technology and services, including pre-acquisition diligence, imposition of contractual obligations, and performance monitoring.

The Company has a written incident response plan and conducts tabletop exercises to enhance incident response preparedness. Business continuity and disaster recovery plans are used to prepare for the potential for a disruption in technology we rely on. The Company is a member of an industry cybersecurity intelligence and risk sharing organization. Employees undergo security awareness training when hired and annually. The Company (or third parties it relies on) may not be able to fully, continuously, and effectively implement security controls as intended. As described above, we utilize a risk-based approach and judgment to determine the security controls to implement, and it is possible we may not implement appropriate controls if we do not recognize or underestimate a particular risk. In addition, security controls, no matter how well designed or implemented, may only mitigate and not fully eliminate risks. And events, when detected by security tools or third parties, may not always be immediately understood or acted upon.

Additionally, in Item 1A Risk Factors, under the heading of Risk Related to Information Security and Business Disruptions, forward-looking cybersecurity threats that could have a material impact on the Company are discussed. Those sections of Item 1A Risk Factors should be read in conjunction with this Item 1C Cybersecurity.

Governance. The Chief Technology Officer (CTO) is the management position with primary responsibility for the development, operation, and maintenance of our information security program. The Company’s CTO, Doug Fay, has served as the Chief Technology Officer & Sr. Vice President for Cinemark since August 2006. Mr. Fay has a background in software engineering and application architecture and has worked in the information technology field since the early 1990s. The CTO routinely reviews risks and security measures and meets monthly with the general counsel, CFO, and Global Controller to review security measures and risks. Oversight of the information security program at the Board level sits with Audit Committee. Presentations regarding security measures and risks to the Audit Committee occur semi-annually. The Company’s incident response plan defines the process for escalating incidents based on level of severity to the management team and Audit Committee.

Item 2. Properties

The following table sets forth a summary of our theatres in U.S. and international markets as of December 31, 2023:

 

 

Leased

 

 

Owned

 

Segment

 

Theatres

 

 

Theatres

 

U.S.

 

 

269

 

 

 

40

 

International

 

 

192

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

461

 

 

 

40

 

See also Item 1, Business – Theatre Operations, for a summary of the geographic locations for our U.S. and international theatre circuit as of December 31, 2023.

The Company conducts a significant part of its theatre operations in leased properties under noncancelable operating and finance leases with base terms generally ranging from 10 to 25 years. In addition to fixed lease payments, some of the leases provide for variable lease payments and some require the payment of taxes, insurance, common area maintenance and other costs applicable to the property. Variable lease payments include payments based on a percentage of sales over defined thresholds. Other variable lease payments include payments adjusted periodically for inflation, changes in attendance or changes in average ticket price. The Company can renew, at its option, many of its leases at defined or then market rental rates for various renewal periods. Some leases also provide for escalating rent payments throughout the lease term. See Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion of our leases.

In addition to our theatre properties, we currently own an office building in Plano, Texas, which is our global headquarters. We lease office space in Frisco, Texas and a warehouse in McKinney, Texas. We also lease office space in seven regions in Latin America for our local office teams.

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For a discussion of contingencies related to legal proceedings, see Note 21 to the consolidated financial statements, which is hereby incorporated by reference.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

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PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information and Holders of Common Stock

Holdings’ common equity consists of common stock, which has traded on the New York Stock Exchange since April 24, 2007 under the symbol “CNK.”

As of December 31, 2023, there were approximately 570 holders of record of Holdings’ common stock and there were no other classes of stock issued and outstanding.

Dividend Policy

Holdings, at the discretion of its board of directors and subject to applicable law, may pay regular quarterly dividends on its common stock. The amount, if any, of the dividends to be paid in the future will depend upon our then available cash, anticipated cash needs, overall financial condition, debt agreement restrictions, forecasted earnings and cash flows, as well as other relevant factors. In March 2020, the Holdings board of directors suspended its dividend in response to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. See Item 7, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation – Liquidity and Capital Resources – Financing Activities for a discussion of dividend restrictions under CUSA’s debt agreements.

CUSA did not pay any cash dividends to Holdings during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023. CUSA’s ability to pay dividends is limited by the terms of its senior notes indentures and its senior secured credit facility, which restrict its ability to pay dividends and the ability of its subsidiaries to pay dividends. See Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion of our debt agreements. The declaration of future dividends will depend upon many factors, including CUSA’s results of operations, financial condition, earnings, capital requirements, limitations in our debt agreements and legal requirements.

 

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Performance Graph

We benchmark our financial performance against AMC Entertainment Holdings, Inc. (AMC) and IMAX Corporation (IMAX), the two other publicly-held companies in our industry with whom we compete for investor capital. The performance graph below sets forth the cumulative total shareholder return (assuming reinvestment of dividends) to Holdings’ stockholders during the five-year period ended December 31, 2023, as well as the corresponding returns on the S&P 500 Index and in each of AMC and IMAX. Holdings’ stock price performance shown in the graph below may not be indicative of future stock performance.

img202339211_0.jpg 

Purchases of Equity Securities

In the fourth quarter of 2023, Holdings purchased shares of its common stock as follows:

 

 

Total Number of Shares Purchased (1)

 

Average Price Paid per Share

 

Total Number of Shares Purchased As Part of Publicly Announced Plans

 

Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under Publicly Announced Plan

 

October 1 through October 31

 

 

 

$

 

 

 

 

 

November 1 through November 30

 

 

17.90

 

$

15.42

 

 

 

 

 

December 1 through December 31

 

 

9.53

 

$

14.09

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

27.43

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1) Represents shares of Holdings’ common stock (in thousands) repurchased by withholding shares in October, November and December of 2023 to satisfy employee tax-withholding obligations upon vesting in restricted stock and performance stock units. See Note 18 to the consolidated financial statements.

Item 6. [Reserved]

 

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Cinemark Holdings, Inc. is a holding company and its wholly-owned subsidiary is Cinemark USA, Inc. Holdings consolidates CUSA and its subsidiaries for financial statement purposes, and CUSA comprises approximately the entire balance of Holdings’ assets, liabilities and operating cash flows. In addition, CUSA’s operating revenue and operating expenses comprise nearly 100% of Holdings’ revenue and operating expenses. As such, Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) that follows is for Holdings and CUSA in all material respects, unless otherwise noted. Differences between the operations and results of Holdings and CUSA are separately disclosed and explained. Where it is important to distinguish between the entities, we either refer specifically to Holdings or CUSA. Otherwise, all references to “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company” or “Cinemark” relate to Cinemark Holdings, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries and all references to CUSA relate to CUSA and its consolidated subsidiaries.

The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and accompanying notes included in this report. This discussion may contain forward-looking statements. See “Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” for a discussion of the uncertainties and risks associated with these statements. Discussion regarding our financial condition and results of operations for 2022 compared with 2021 is included in Item 7 of the Company’s 2022 Annual Report on Form 10-K filed on February 24, 2023.

Overview

We are a leader in the motion picture exhibition industry, with theatres in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Guatemala, Bolivia, and Paraguay. As of December 31, 2023, we managed our business under two reportable operating segments – U.S. markets and international markets. See Note 22 to the consolidated financial statements.

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic had an unprecedented effect on the theatrical exhibition industry. We temporarily closed our theatres in the U.S. and Latin America during March of 2020 at the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak. We reopened theatres as soon as local restrictions and the status of the COVID-19 pandemic would allow. All of our domestic and international theatres were reopened by the end of 2021. After reopening our theatres, we faced ongoing challenges with the significant reduction in the volume of new film releases. The industry has made significant progress in its recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic; however its ongoing recovery continues to be contingent upon several key factors, including the volume of new film content available, which has also been impacted by the recent writers’ and actors’ guild strikes, the box office performance of new film content released, the duration of the exclusive theatrical release window and evolving consumer behavior with competition from other forms of in-and-out of home entertainment.

Revenue and Expenses

We generate revenue primarily from filmed entertainment box office receipts and concession sales, with additional revenue from screen advertising, screen rental and other revenue streams, such as transactional fees, vendor marketing promotions, studio trailer placements, meeting rentals and electronic video games located in some of our theatres. We also offer alternative entertainment, such as the Metropolitan Opera, concert events, live and pre-recorded sports programs and other special events in our theatres. NCM provides our domestic theatres with various forms of in-theatre advertising. Our Flix Media subsidiaries provide screen advertising and alternative content for our international circuit and other international exhibitors.

Films released during the year ended December 31, 2023 included Barbie, The Super Mario Bros. Movie, Spider-Man: Across the Spider-Verse, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3, Oppenheimer, The Little Mermaid, Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania, John Wick: Chapter 4, Sound of Freedom, Taylor Swift | The Eras Tour concert film, The Hunger Games: The Ballad of Songbirds and Snakes, Five Nights at Freddy’s, Wonka, and Trolls Band Together, among other films.

Films scheduled for release in 2024 include Madame Web, Dune: Part Two, Ghostbusters: Frozen Empire, Kung Fu Panda 4, The Fall Guy, Furiosa, Kingdom of the Planet of the Apes, Inside Out 2, A Quiet Place: Day One,

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Despicable Me 4, Deadpool 3, Joker: Folie à Deux, Venom 3, Wicked - Part I, Mufusa: The Lion King, and Sonic the Hedgehog 3, among other films.

Film rental costs are variable in nature and fluctuate with our admissions revenue. Film rental costs as a percentage of revenue are generally higher for periods in which more blockbuster films are released. The Company previously received virtual print fees (VPFs) from studios for certain of its international locations, which were included as a contra-expense in film rental and advertising costs on the consolidated statements of income. However, these costs were fully recovered during 2021, and as a result, were not received during 2022 and 2023 and will not be received in future periods. Advertising costs, which are expensed as incurred, are primarily related to expanding our reach to our guests, keeping Cinemark elevated in the moviegoer consideration set and growing loyalty. These expenses vary depending on the timing and length of such campaigns.

Concession supplies expense is variable in nature and fluctuates with our concession revenue and also product mix. Inflationary pressures, and to a lesser extent supply chain interruptions, have impacted, and may continue to impact, product costs and product availability. We source products from a variety of partners around the world to minimize supply chain interruptions and cost pressures, wherever possible.

Although salaries and wages include a fixed cost component (i.e., the minimum staffing costs to operate a theatre facility during non-peak periods), salaries and wages tend to move in relation to revenue as theatre staffing is adjusted to respond to changes in attendance. Staffing levels may vary based on the amenities offered at each location, such as full-service restaurants, bars or expanded food and beverage options. In certain international locations, staffing levels are also subject to local regulations, including minimum hour requirements. Labor market conditions and inflationary pressures have driven increases in wages across our labor base and similar increases may continue in the future.

Facility lease expense is primarily a fixed cost at the theatre level as most of our facility leases require a fixed monthly minimum rent payment. Certain leases are subject to percentage rent only, while others are subject to percentage rent in addition to their fixed monthly rent if a target annual performance level is achieved.

Utilities and other costs include both fixed and variable costs and primarily consist of utilities, property taxes, janitorial costs, credit card transaction fees, third party ticket sales commissions, repairs and maintenance expenses, security services and projection and sound equipment maintenance expenses.

General and administrative expenses to support the overall management of the Company are primarily fixed in nature with certain variable components. Fixed expenses include salaries, wages and benefits costs for our corporate office personnel, facility expenses for our corporate and other offices, software license and maintenance costs and audit fees. Some variable expenses may include incentive compensation, consulting and legal fees, supplies and other costs that are not specifically associated with the operations of our theatres.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

Holdings and CUSA each prepare their consolidated financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S., or U.S. GAAP. As such, Holdings and CUSA are each required to make certain estimates and assumptions that it believes are reasonable based upon the information available. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the periods presented. The significant accounting policies and estimates, which we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating Holdings’ and CUSA’s reported consolidated financial results, include the following:

Revenue and Expense Recognition

Our patrons have the option to purchase movie tickets well in advance of a movie showtime, right before the movie showtime, or at any point in between those two timeframes depending on seat availability. We recognize such admissions revenue when the showtime for a purchased movie ticket has passed. Concession revenue is recognized when products are sold to the consumer, or if purchased in advance, once the showtime associated with the customer’s movie ticket has passed. Other revenue primarily consists of screen advertising, screen rental revenue, promotional income, studio trailer placements, revenue from electronic video games located in our theatres, and transactional fees. Except for NCM screen advertising advances (see Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements), these revenues are generally recognized when we have fulfilled our performance obligations by providing the specified services.

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We sell gift cards and discount ticket vouchers, the proceeds from which are recorded as deferred revenue. Deferred revenue for gift cards and discount ticket vouchers is recognized when they are redeemed for concession items or, if redeemed for movie tickets, when the showtime has passed. We generally record breakage revenue on gift cards and discount ticket vouchers based on redemption activity and historical experience with unused balances.

We offer a subscription program in the U.S. whereby patrons can pay a monthly or annual fee to receive a monthly credit for use towards a future movie ticket purchase. We also offer monthly subscription fee programs in several of our international locations where customers can pay a monthly fee to receive benefits such as a free monthly ticket. We record the subscription program fees as deferred revenue and record admissions revenue when the showtime for a movie ticket purchased with a credit has passed.

We have loyalty programs in the U.S. and many of our international locations that either have a prepaid annual fee or award points to customers as purchases are made. For those loyalty programs that have a prepaid annual fee, we recognize the fee collected as other revenue on a straight-line basis over the annual membership period. For those loyalty programs that award points to customers based on their purchases, we record a portion of the original transaction proceeds as deferred revenue based on the number of reward points issued to customers and recognize the deferred revenue when the customer redeems such points. The value of loyalty points issued is based on the estimated fair value of the rewards offered. We record breakage revenue on deferred loyalty and subscription revenue generally upon the expiration of loyalty points and subscription credits, respectively, as we do not yet have sufficient historical data related to the redemption patterns of these programs to estimate breakage.

Film rental costs are based on the film licensing arrangements and accrued based on the applicable box office receipts and either; 1) a sliding scale formula, which is generally established prior to the opening of the film, 2) a firm terms formula as negotiated prior to a film’s theatrical run or 3) estimates of the final settlement rate, which occurs at the conclusion of the film’s run. Under a sliding scale formula, we pay a percentage of box office revenues using a pre-determined scale that is based upon box office performance of the film for its full theatrical run. Under a firm terms formula, we pay the distributor a percentage of box office receipts that can either be an aggregate rate for the full theatrical run or rates that decline over the term of the theatrical run. The settlement process allows for negotiation of film rental fees upon the conclusion of the film's theatrical run based upon how the film performs. Estimates are based on the expected success of a film. The success of a film can generally be determined a few weeks after a film is released when the initial box office performance of the film is known. If actual settlements are different than those estimates, film rental cost estimates are adjusted at that time.

Facility lease expense is primarily a fixed cost at the theatre level as most of our facility leases require a fixed monthly minimum rent payment. Certain of our leases are subject to monthly percentage rent only, which is accrued each month based on actual revenues. Certain of our other theatres require payment of percentage rent in addition to fixed monthly rent if an annual target revenue level is achieved. Percentage rent expense for these annual payments is estimated and recorded for these theatres on a monthly basis if the theatre’s historical performance or forecasted performance indicates that the annual target revenue level will be reached. Once actual annual percentage rent is determinable, the timing of which is based on the respective lease agreement, percentage rent expense estimates are adjusted at that time.

Theatre properties and equipment are depreciated using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives. In estimating the useful lives of our theatre properties and equipment, we have relied upon our experience with such assets and our historical replacement period. We periodically evaluate these estimates and assumptions and adjust them as necessary. Leasehold improvements for which we pay, and to which we have title, are amortized over the lesser of their useful life or the remaining initial lease term.

Long-Lived Assets Impairment Evaluations

We review long-lived assets for impairment indicators on a quarterly basis or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of the assets may not be fully recoverable. We also perform a full quantitative impairment evaluation on an annual basis. We assess many factors to determine whether to impair individual theatre assets, including the following:

actual theatre level cash flows;
budgeted or forecasted theatre level cash flows;
theatre property and equipment carrying values;

26


 

operating lease right-of-use asset carrying values;
the age of a recently built theatre;
change in competitive theatres in the marketplace;
the impact of recent theatre remodels or other substantial improvements;
available lease renewal options; and
other factors considered relevant in our assessment of impairment of individual theatre assets.

Long-lived assets are evaluated for impairment on a theatre level, which we believe is the lowest applicable level for which there are identifiable cash flows. The impairment evaluation is based on the estimated undiscounted cash flows from continuing use through the remainder of the theatre’s useful life. The remainder of the theatre’s useful life correlates with the remaining lease period, which may include the probability of the exercise of available renewal periods for leased properties, and the lesser of twenty years or the building’s remaining useful life for owned properties. If the estimated undiscounted cash flows are not sufficient to recover a long-lived asset’s carrying value, we then compare the carrying value of the asset group (theatre) with its estimated fair value. When estimated fair value is determined to be lower than the carrying value of the asset group (theatre), the asset group (theatre) is written down to its estimated fair value. Significant judgment is involved in estimating cash flows and fair value. Fair value is determined based on a multiple of cash flows. Management’s estimates, which fall under Level 3 of the U.S. GAAP fair value hierarchy as defined by FASB ASC Topic 820-10-35, are based on historical and projected operating performance, recent market transactions and current industry trading multiples.

See further discussion of our impairment evaluation policy in Note 1 of the consolidated financial statements. See a summary of the impairment charges recorded during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023 in Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements.

Goodwill and Intangible Assets Impairment Evaluations

We evaluate goodwill for impairment annually during the fourth quarter or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value of the goodwill may not be fully recoverable. We evaluate goodwill for impairment at the reporting unit level, which is the U.S. and each of our international countries that has been allocated goodwill (we do not have goodwill recorded for all of our international locations). Under our quantitative goodwill impairment analysis, we estimate the fair value of each reporting unit and compare that to its carrying value. Fair value is estimated using (i) a market approach, which considers a multiple of cash flows for each reporting unit based upon public trading and recent transaction valuation multiples as the basis for fair value and (ii) an income approach, which uses a discounted cash flow model incorporating discount rates commensurate with the risks involved as the basis for fair value. Significant judgment including management’s estimate of future theatre level cash flows for each theatre is involved in estimating the fair value of a reporting unit. Our estimates, which fall under Level 3 of the U.S. GAAP fair value hierarchy as defined by FASB ASC Topic 820-10-35, are based on projected operating performance of each reporting unit, recent market transactions and current industry trading multiples. Under ASC Topic 350, Goodwill, Intangibles and Other, we may perform a qualitative impairment assessment or a quantitative impairment assessment of our goodwill.

Tradename intangible assets are tested for impairment at least annually as of November 30th or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be fully recoverable. Under ASC Topic 350, we can elect to perform a qualitative or quantitative impairment assessment for our tradename intangible assets. A quantitative tradename impairment assessment includes comparing the carrying values of tradename assets to their estimated fair value. Fair values are estimated by applying an estimated market royalty rate that could be charged for the use of our tradenames to forecasted future revenues, with an adjustment for the present value of such royalties. If the estimated fair value is less than the carrying value, the tradename intangible asset is written down to its estimated fair value. Significant judgment is involved in estimating market royalty rates and long-term revenue forecasts. Management’s estimates, which fall under Level 3 of the U.S. GAAP fair value hierarchy as defined by FASB ASC Topic 820-10-35, are based on historical and projected revenue performance and industry trends. The Company’s qualitative assessment considers industry and market conditions and recent developments that may impact the revenue forecasts and other estimates as compared to its most recent quantitative assessment.

See further discussion of our impairment evaluation policy in Note 1 of the consolidated financial statements. See a summary of the impairment charges recorded during the years ended December 31, 2021, 2022 and 2023 in Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements.

27


 

Income Taxes

CUSA participates in the consolidated return of Holdings; however, CUSA’s provisions for income taxes are computed on a stand-alone basis. We use an asset and liability approach to financial accounting and reporting for income taxes. Deferred income taxes are provided when tax laws and financial accounting standards differ with respect to the amount of income for a year and the basis of assets and liabilities. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce the carrying amount of deferred tax assets unless it is more likely than not that such assets will be realized. Income taxes are provided on unremitted earnings from foreign subsidiaries unless such earnings are expected to be indefinitely reinvested. Income taxes have also been provided for potential tax assessments. The evaluation of an uncertain tax position is a two-step process. The first step is recognition: We determine whether it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained upon examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation processes, based on the technical merits of the position. In evaluating whether a tax position has met the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, we presume that the position would be examined by the appropriate taxing authority that would have full knowledge of all relevant information. The second step is measurement: A tax position that meets the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold is measured to determine the amount of benefit to recognize in the financial statements. The tax position is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Differences between tax positions taken in a tax return and amounts recognized in the financial statements result in (1) a change in a liability for income taxes payable or (2) a change in an income tax refund receivable, a deferred tax asset or a deferred tax liability or both (1) and (2). We accrue interest and penalties on uncertain tax positions. See Note 20 to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion of income taxes.

Accounting for Investment in National CineMedia, Inc. and Related Agreements

We have an investment in National CineMedia, Inc., or NCMI. NCMI is a holding company and the sole manager of NCM. NCM operates a digital in-theatre network in the U.S. for providing cinema advertising. NCM comprises approximately the entire balance of NCMI’s assets, liabilities and operating cash flows. The Company entered into an Exhibitor Services Agreement, or ESA, with NCM pursuant to which NCM primarily provides screen advertising to its domestic theatres. On February 13, 2007, NCMI completed an initial public offering (“IPO”) of its common stock. In connection with the NCMI initial public offering, the Company amended its operating agreement and the ESA. At the time of the NCMI IPO and as a result of amending the ESA, the Company received approximately $174 million in cash consideration from NCM. The proceeds were recorded as deferred revenue, or NCM screen advertising advances, and are being amortized over the term of the amended and restated ESA, which expires in February 2041.

The Company also periodically receives consideration in the form of common unit adjustments from NCM. Pursuant to a Common Unit Adjustment Agreement dated as of February 13, 2007 between NCMI and the Company, referred to as the Founding Members, we receive annual adjustments to the common membership units primarily based on increases or decreases in the number of theatre screens operated and theatre attendance generated by us. The common units received are recorded at estimated fair value as an increase in the Company’s investment in NCM with an offset to deferred revenue or NCM screen advertising advances. The fair value of the common units received is estimated based on the market price of NCMI common stock (Level 1 input as defined in FASB ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurement) at the time the common units are determined, adjusted for volatility associated with the estimated time period it would take to convert the common units and register the respective shares. The recognition of revenue related to the NCM screen advertising advances is being recognized on a straight-line basis over the term of the amended and restated ESA through February 2041.

 

On April 11, 2023, NCM filed a petition for reorganization under Chapter 11 of the United States Bankruptcy Code. NCMI continued to manage NCM as the “debtor in possession,” under the jurisdiction of the bankruptcy court and in accordance with the applicable bankruptcy laws and orders of the bankruptcy court. In general, as debtor in possession under the Bankruptcy Code, NCM was authorized to continue to operate as an ongoing business but could not engage in transactions outside the ordinary course of business without the prior approval of the bankruptcy court. Due to NCM’s bankruptcy proceedings, we reassessed our rights and level of influence over NCM. We determined that effective April 11, 2023, the date NCM filed its bankruptcy petition, we no longer had significant influence over NCM and therefore ceased accounting for our investment in NCMI under the equity method of accounting in the second quarter of 2023. Effective April 11, 2023, we started to account for our investment in NCMI in accordance with the guidance set forth in FASB ASC Topic 321 Investments - Equity Securities, which requires us to measure our

28


 

investment in common stock of NCMI at fair value and recognize unrealized holding gains and losses on our investment in earnings.

 

Through April 11, 2023, we accounted for our investment in NCMI under the equity method of accounting, and therefore evaluated our investment in NCMI/NCM for impairment that is other than temporary on a quarterly basis or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicated the current value of the investment may be less than its carrying value. Under ASC Topic 323, Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures, a loss in value of an investment that is other than a temporary decline should be recognized. Factors that are considered in evaluating whether a decline in the value of an investment is other than temporary include a severe and sustained decline in the quoted market price of an investment below the carrying value of the investment, or specific events that may adversely influence the operations of the investee in a permanent or irreversible manner. We evaluated our investment in NCMI for impairment on April 11, 2023, the date NCM filed for bankruptcy, and we did not find any indication of impairment as the share price of NCMI was above the carrying value of our investment in NCMI.

 

On August 3, 2023, NCMI announced that it had effected a 1-for-10 reverse stock split of its common stock. NCMI’s common stock automatically began trading on a split adjusted basis at the opening of the market on August 4, 2023. After giving effect to the reverse stock split, the Company owns approximately 4.4 million shares of NCMI common stock. NCM emerged from bankruptcy on August 7, 2023, and the Company’s ownership interest in NCMI was reduced to less than 5%. The Company no longer has the right to designate two board members to the NCMI board of directors.

See Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements for further discussion of our investment in NCMI and the related accounting.

29


 

Results of Operations

The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the amounts for certain items reflected in operating (loss) income of Holdings along with each of those items as a percentage of revenue.

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2022

 

 

2023

 

Operating data (in millions):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Admissions

 

$

780.0

 

 

$

1,246.9

 

 

$

1,555.6

 

Concession

 

 

561.7

 

 

 

938.3

 

 

 

1,192.0

 

Other

 

 

168.8

 

 

 

269.5

 

 

 

319.1

 

Total revenue

 

$

1,510.5

 

 

$

2,454.7

 

 

$

3,066.7

 

Cost of operations (1)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Film rentals and advertising

 

 

415.0

 

 

 

704.4

 

 

 

865.7

 

Concession supplies

 

 

97.9

 

 

 

169.3

 

 

 

221.3

 

Salaries and wages

 

 

232.9

 

 

 

372.7

 

 

 

403.1

 

Facility lease expense

 

 

280.0

 

 

 

308.3

 

 

 

329.7

 

Utilities and other

 

 

282.9

 

 

 

407.2

 

 

 

466.8

 

General and administrative expenses

 

 

161.1

 

 

 

177.6

 

 

 

198.8

 

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

265.4

 

 

 

238.2

 

 

 

209.5

 

Impairment of long-lived assets

 

 

20.8

 

 

 

174.1

 

 

 

16.6

 

Restructuring costs

 

 

(1.0

)

 

 

(0.5

)

 

 

 

Loss (gain) on disposal of assets and other

 

 

8.0

 

 

 

(6.8

)

 

 

(7.7

)

Total cost of operations

 

 

1,763.0

 

 

 

2,544.5

 

 

 

2,703.8

 

Operating (loss) income

 

$

(252.5

)

 

$

(89.8

)

 

$

362.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating data as a percentage of total Revenue:

 

Revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Admissions

 

 

51.6

%

 

 

50.8

%

 

 

50.7

%

Concession

 

 

37.2

%

 

 

38.2

%

 

 

38.9

%

Other

 

 

11.2

%

 

 

11.0

%

 

 

10.4

%

Total revenue

 

 

100.0

%

 

 

100.0

%

 

 

100.0

%

Cost of operations (2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Film rentals and advertising

 

 

53.2

%

 

 

56.5

%

 

 

55.7

%

Concession supplies

 

 

17.4

%

 

 

18.0

%

 

 

18.6

%

Salaries and wages

 

 

15.4

%

 

 

15.2

%

 

 

13.1

%

Facility lease expense

 

 

18.5

%

 

 

12.6

%

 

 

10.8

%

Utilities and other

 

 

18.7

%

 

 

16.6

%

 

 

15.2

%

General and administrative expenses

 

 

10.7

%

 

 

7.2

%

 

 

6.5

%

Depreciation and amortization

 

 

17.6

%

 

 

9.7

%

 

 

6.8

%

Impairment of long-lived assets

 

 

1.4

%

 

 

7.1

%

 

 

0.5

%

Restructuring costs

 

 

(0.1

)%

 

 

0.0

%

 

 

0.0

%

Loss (gain) on disposal of assets and other

 

 

0.5

%

 

 

(0.3

)%

 

 

(0.3

)%

Total cost of operations

 

 

116.7

%

 

 

103.7

%

 

 

88.2

%

Operating (loss) income

 

 

(16.7

)%

 

 

(3.7

)%

 

 

11.8

%

Average screen count (3)

 

 

5,890

 

 

 

5,849

 

 

 

5,803

 

Revenue per average screen (in dollars)

 

$

256,445

 

 

$

419,675

 

 

$

528,463

 

(1)
The only difference between components of operating income (loss) for Holdings, as presented above, and those of CUSA is incremental general and administrative expense recognized by Holdings. The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the amounts for general and administrative expense, total cost of operations and operating income (loss) of CUSA:

30


 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2022

 

 

2023

 

Operating data (in millions):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of operations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

General and administrative expenses

 

$

158.5

 

 

$

174.6

 

 

$

195.5

 

Total cost of operations

 

$

1,760.4

 

 

$

2,541.5

 

 

$

2,700.5

 

Operating (loss) income

 

$

(249.9

)

 

$

(86.8

)

 

$

366.2

 

(2)
All costs are expressed as a percentage of total revenue, except film rentals and advertising, which are expressed as a percentage of admissions revenue and concession supplies, which are expressed as a percentage of concession revenue.
(3)
Average screen count is calculated based on the average of month end screen counts.

Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2023 and December 31, 2022

Year ended December 31, 2022 - The North American Industry box office totaled approximately $7.5 billion during 2022 which included the carryover of Spider-Man: No Way Home and new blockbuster releases such as Top Gun: Maverick, Black Panther: Wakanda Forever, Doctor Strange in the Multiverse of Madness, Avatar: The Way of Water, Jurassic World Dominion, Minions: The Rise of Gru, The Batman, Thor: Love and Thunder, Puss in Boots: The Last Wish and Sonic the Hedgehog 2, among other films.

Year ended December 31, 2023 - The North American Industry box office generated approximately $9.1 billion during 2023, which included the carryover of Avatar: The Way of Water and Puss in Boots: The Last Wish, as well as new blockbuster releases including Barbie, The Super Mario Bros. Movie, Spider-Man: Across the Spider-Verse, Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 3, Oppenheimer, The Little Mermaid, Ant-Man and the Wasp: Quantumania, John Wick: Chapter 4, Sound of Freedom, Taylor Swift | The Eras Tour concert film, The Hunger Games: The Ballad of Songbirds and Snakes, Five Nights at Freddy’s, Wonka, and Trolls Band Together, among other films.

Revenue. The table below, presented by reportable operating segment, summarizes our year-over-year revenue performance and certain key performance indicators that impact our revenues.

 

 

U.S. Operating Segment

 

International Operating Segment

 

Consolidated

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Constant Currency (3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2023

 

2022

 

% Change

 

2023

 

2022

 

% Change

 

2023

 

% Change

 

2023

 

2022

 

% Change

Admissions revenue

 

$1,236.0

 

$1,010.2

 

22.4%

 

$319.6